defence mechanism

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defence mechanism

(PSYCHOANALYSIS) the method by which the EGO transforms the energies of the ID to make them acceptable to reality. Defence mechanisms reduce biological tension and mental anxiety The main defence mechanisms are:
  1. denial, where the instinctual urge is inhibited;
  2. repression, where it is made completely unconscious;
  3. projection, where the urge is inhibited in the self but attributed to another person;
  4. reaction formation, where the energies of the ID are redirected in the opposite direction;
  5. intellectualization, where unacceptable emotions are transformed by explanations making excuses for the undesirable behaviour;
  6. sublimation, where the energy of the ID is directed from the primary, but unacceptable, object to one that is socially acceptable. See also FREUD, LACAN.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pertaining to modern day race relations between European Americans and African Americans, for example, have we reached the point that ego defenses have actually become conscious defenses on the part of a significant number of White people?
Using ego defense mechanisms is often a way of buying time while we [White people] consciously or unconsciously wrestle with more realistic solutions for whatever is troubling us.
The use of ego defenses to manage this anxiety may be an obstacle to counselors' and supervisors' effectiveness in their professional roles.
Psychiatrist William Vaillant (1993) has elaborated a detailed schema for understanding the continued development of the ego into adulthood, based on the evolution of ego defenses.
Moreover, a variety of symptoms were said to occur with the transition; these included subjective discomfort, confusion, mood swings, ego defenses, impulsivity, acting-out, and heightened physical and somatic complaints (Erikson, 1956, 1963, 1968).
The ego defenses, which have a particular influence on the musculature by increasing tension, prevent the conscious experience of such intrapsychic turmoil to reach conscious awareness.
In each issue where ego defenses are clearly involved, the patient is also demonstrating efforts to compensate for cognitive disturbance with only partial success.
Freud stated that, in order to deal with the anxiety caused by this inner conflict, these individuals use ego defense mechanisms (Valliant, 1992).