defence mechanism

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defence mechanism

(PSYCHOANALYSIS) the method by which the EGO transforms the energies of the ID to make them acceptable to reality. Defence mechanisms reduce biological tension and mental anxiety The main defence mechanisms are:
  1. denial, where the instinctual urge is inhibited;
  2. repression, where it is made completely unconscious;
  3. projection, where the urge is inhibited in the self but attributed to another person;
  4. reaction formation, where the energies of the ID are redirected in the opposite direction;
  5. intellectualization, where unacceptable emotions are transformed by explanations making excuses for the undesirable behaviour;
  6. sublimation, where the energy of the ID is directed from the primary, but unacceptable, object to one that is socially acceptable. See also FREUD, LACAN.
References in periodicals archive ?
Freud stated that, in order to deal with the anxiety caused by this inner conflict, these individuals use ego defense mechanisms (Valliant, 1992).
More recently, Thompson and Neville (1999) added to the literature on race-related defense mechanisms by outlining a number of ego defenses used by Whites to preserve racism.
Psychiatrist William Vaillant (1993) has elaborated a detailed schema for understanding the continued development of the ego into adulthood, based on the evolution of ego defenses.
Role of the ego defenses: Denial and repression in the etiology of malignant neoplasm.
1 Thomas Strentz, "Law Enforcement Policy and Ego Defenses of the Hostage," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, April 1979, 1.
Moreover, a variety of symptoms were said to occur with the transition; these included subjective discomfort, confusion, mood swings, ego defenses, impulsivity, acting-out, and heightened physical and somatic complaints (Erikson, 1956, 1963, 1968).
The ego defenses, which have a particular influence on the musculature by increasing tension, prevent the conscious experience of such intrapsychic turmoil to reach conscious awareness.
In each issue where ego defenses are clearly involved, the patient is also demonstrating efforts to compensate for cognitive disturbance with only partial success.
According to Freud, psychological repression is "the most fundamental ego defense" as the unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness (as cited in Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2000, p.