(1919 and 1921), national liberation uprisings of the Egyptian people against the British colonialists. The uprisings broke out under the influence of the October Socialist Revolution in Russia.
The uprising of 1919 was preceded by a mass demonstration in Cairo on March 9, protesting the arrest of S. Zaghlul, the leader of the Wafd Party. On March 10 the workers of Cairo went on strike. British troops opened fire on the strikers and demonstrators on March 11, sparking an all-Egyptian uprising that seized almost all of Egypt on March 12. By March 18 all of the British garrisons in upper Egypt had been driven out or besieged, and the rebels had liberated large areas of lower Egypt. Revolutionary ruling bodies were formed in many cities and villages. Massing a large army in Egypt, the British imperialists suppressed the uprising. Sporadic fighting continued until the end of April, and major revolutionary battles were fought in Cairo and Alexandria between September and November 1919. A second anti-British uprising broke out on Dec. 23, 1921, and lasted until early 1922.
Although the uprisings of 1919 and 1921 were suppressed, they dealt a severe blow to British domination in Egypt. In February 1922, Great Britain gave up its protectorate over Egypt and formally recognized its independence.