Egyptian language


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Egyptian language,

extinct language of ancient Egypt, a member of the Afroasiatic family of languages (see Afroasiatic languagesAfroasiatic languages
, formerly Hamito-Semitic languages
, family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people in N Africa; much of the Sahara; parts of E, central, and W Africa; and W Asia (especially the Arabian peninsula, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and
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). The development of ancient Egyptian is usually divided into four periods: (1) Old Egyptian, spoken and written in Egypt during the IV to VI dynasties of the Old Kingdom (3d millennium B.C.); (2) Middle Egyptian, a form of the language noted for its great literature and current from the XI dynasty (beginning 2134 B.C.) to the reign of Ikhnaton (c.1372–1354 B.C.) in the XVIII dynasty; (3) Late Egyptian, which was used from the time of Ikhnaton through the XX dynasty of the 12th cent. B.C.; and (4) demotic, dating from the late 8th cent. B.C. to the 5th cent. A.D.

The ancient Egyptian language first used a hieroglyphichieroglyphic
[Gr.,=priestly carving], type of writing used in ancient Egypt. Similar pictographic styles of Crete, Asia Minor, and Central America and Mexico are also called hieroglyphics (see Minoan civilization; Anatolian languages; Maya; Aztec).
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 form of writing that underwent several stages of development in the course of the centuries. From hieroglyphics evolved an Egyptian cursive handwriting known as hieratic; and from hieratic, a simplified script called demotic, in which was recorded the form of the Egyptian language also called demotic. Egyptian hieroglyphics and the styles of writing derived from them are associated with pagan civilization. Their extinction followed the victory of Christianity over the pagan religions.

Some scholars regard Coptic (see CoptsCopts
, the native Christian minority of Egypt; estimates of the number of Copts in Egypt range from 5% to 17% of the population. Copts are not ethnically distinct from other Egyptians; they are a cultural remnant, i.e.
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) as a fifth period of ancient Egyptian, although others classify it as a different language descended from the ancient tongue. If Coptic, which is written in a modified version of the Greek alphabet, is considered a continuation of the Egyptian language, a written record of the latter may be said to cover an unbroken span of at least 40 centuries, the longest such record known for a language.

See also Rosetta Stone under RosettaRosetta
, former name of Rashid
, city (1986 pop. 51,789), N Egypt, in the Nile River delta. The city once dominated the region's rice market; rice milling and fish processing are the main industries of modern Rashid. Founded in the 9th cent.
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.

Bibliography

See studies by A. Bakir (1983, 1984); A. H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar (3d ed. 1957); N. M. Davies, Picture Writing in Ancient Egypt (1958); E. W. Budge, Egyptian Language (8th ed. 1966).

References in periodicals archive ?
Zahi Hawas during the seminar -- Photo Courtesy of CIBF official Facebook page Concerning the Pyramids construction, Hawas stated that a piece of papyrus written in the ancient Egyptian language, that carried the full explanation for the process of the Pyramids construction, was unearthed, refuting all the spread claims around the Great Pyramid.
After viewing pictures of King Tut's beautifully patterned sarcophagus, and learning about the symbols of the Egyptian language known as "hieroglyphics," the students were ready to make their own sarcophagi
Within a century, Arabic became the country's official language and the Coptic language, derived from the Ancient Egyptian language known as "Late Egyptian," stopped being spoken in the 13th century.
After a quick orientation to the history and structure of the Egyptian language, they cover the adverbial, nominal, and the adjectival sentence in terms of internal morpho-syntax, clausal syntax, semantics and pragmatics, and negation.
Read: (http://Early Animal Hieroglyphics Show How Egyptian Language Evolved) Early Animal Hieroglyphics Show How Egyptian Language Evolved
The main evidence is as follows: Long after Middle Egyptian ceased being spoken and the Egyptian language had evolved into its so-called Late Egyptian stage of the later second millennium b.
Actually originally the conversations WERE in the Egyptian language but then the publisher changed it into fos7a, because we have to consider competitions (such as the one I won in, for which I am very thankful of course) plus consider the market in other Arab countries, which I believe is sad, because somehow writing conversations in fos7a is a big drop in the story, and it's not really MY work anymore, but my hands are tied, unfortunately.
The name of Egypt in the ancient Egyptian language is "Kemet," or "Kimi" in the Coptic language.
According to a 2012 Religion News Service report, the fragment contains 33 words across 14 incomplete lines in Coptic, an Egyptian language.
For eight-year old student of Egyptian Language School, Karim Waheed who was at Hyatt Plaza where shows such as Play D'oh and Mr Dropsy & the BellBoy were staged, it was an Eid holiday well spent.
Each piece has been selected to tell the story of the development and use of the ancient Egyptian language.
As Robinson makes clear in his prologue on "Egyptomania" and first chapter on the "hieroglyphic delirium" of the early modern age, the "rediscovery" of ancient Egypt and its hieroglyphs was the product of generations of effort, exemplified by the monumental efforts of Athanasius Kircher, who, though ultimately misled by his insistence on the entirely symbolic function of the hieroglyphs in their most "advanced" usage by the Egyptian priests, contributed significantly to the recovery of Coptic and its identification (in the West) as a later form of the ancient Egyptian language.

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