banner system

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banner system,

Manchu conscription system. Companies of ManchuManchu
, people who lived in Manchuria for many centuries and who ruled China from 1644 until 1912. These people, related to the Tungus, were descended from the Jurchen, a tribe known in Asia since the 7th cent. They were first called Manchu in the early 17th cent.
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 warriors were grouped (1601) into brigades, each with a distinctive banner. The banner system integrated former tribal units into a bureaucratic war machine that enabled the Manchus to conquer and rule China as the Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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 dynasty (1644–1912). Banners (brigades) and their component companies did not live and fight as units but were garrisoned at various places and contributed a certain quota of men to make up a fighting force when needed. Later, banners of Mongol and Chinese adherents were also organized. About 1.5 million bannermen and their families were garrisoned at strategic points and major population centers throughout China. By the 19th cent. corruption and inefficiency pervaded the banner system, forcing the Ch'ing government to rely increasingly on provincial militia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
2) placement of eight banners (2mx1m) with the logo designated by the Employer in the hall of the competition,
Artists Hilary and Graham Roberts also held art workshops in the schools, the results of which - eight banners - are being displayed at the National Library's stand at the Eisteddfod.
"We've been given programmes, tickets, scarves, shirts and eight banners. Some of the more unusual items to commemorate the game were a bottle of M&B beer, a jumper someone knitted for their son and a teddy bear taken to the match."
Hooley is responsible for eight banners that operate 296 stores in 13 states, including Biggs, Cub Foods, Farm Fresh, Hornbacher's, Metro, Scott's Food Stores, Shop 'n Save and Shoppers Food Warehouse.
Operating eight banners in six geographic markets, Needler and his team compete effectively against Wal-Mart, Kroger, and Meijer, to name just a few.
The Manchu rulers attempted to keep their people away from these sybaritic temptations by using the Eight Banners. These were military institutions set up to provide a structure with which the Manchu `bannermen' were meant to identify.
Carefully documenting their continued social, cultural, economic, and political distinctiveness at both elite and nonelite levels even in the late Qing era, Rhoads shows how Manchus and others in the Eight Banners maintained a separate identity, which, he argues, coalesced into modern Manchu ethnicity by no later than the 1950s.
The first chapter, a concise introduction to the Eight Banners, and the fourth chapter, a detailed relation of the fate of the Qing house and Manchus generally in late 1911, are especially worthwhile.
Eight banners will be hung around the Phoenix Initiative project area, including a 52 metre-long slogan on the hoarding by the former bingo hall in Hales Street.
Highly commended was The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China by Mark C.
The records exist because Daoyi and its farmer-soldiers were a unit of the so-called Eight Banners, the "military organization responsible for much of the authority of the Qing dynasty" (1644-1911) (225).