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a group of wheat species in which usually only one grain develops in each spikelet. The compact, flattened head, or ear, has a fragile axis. The spikelets are arranged on the axis singly or in two rows; they are biflorate, with one fertile flower and one usually underdeveloped flower. The grain is scaly and cannot be threshed. The plants are diploid, having two sets of seven chromosomes. Of the four species, one is cultivated and three are wild.

The cultivated species, Triticum monococcum, is a spring plant measuring up to 130 cm high. Its stems are resistant to lodging. In the USSR, the plant is encountered in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where it grows as a rare admixture among plantings of other wheats and as a weed. In some countries of southern Europe, it is grown as a feed crop.

The wild einkorns—wild small spelt (T. boeoticum), T. thaoudar, and T. urarthu—differ from the cultivated einkorn in a number of ways. They are winter crops, and they are shorter than T. monococcum. Their stems generally lodge, and their ears are narrower and more fragile. T. boeoticum and T. thaoudar grow along dry mountain slopes and in light mountain forests in the Balkans, the Crimea, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Southwest Asia. T. urarhu is encountered on dry foothills in Armenia. The young plants are suitable for livestock feed. The hard beaks and awns of the spikelets of mature plants can damage the stomach wall of animals.


Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.


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References in periodicals archive ?
Einkorn is considered more nutritious than modern wheat.
At the earliest of these, PPNB Kissonerga-Mylouthkia, charred remains of domesticated cereals, including einkorn, emmer and hulled barley, dating from the mid ninth millennium BC, were identified, and at a slightly later date impressions of domesticated hulled barley were found in pise at Shillourokambos.
In 2009, the couple started by planting just 50 acres of einkorn wheat.
She turns maize into polenta, spelt wheat into bread, einkorn into pasta, pumpkins into oil and apples into juice, jams and vinegar.
The site of Tell Qarassa North (Figure 1) was occupied by groups of farmers who exploited several varieties of cereals (emmer, einkorn and barley) and pulses (chickpea, vetch and lentil) and herded or hunted a number of animal species (notably goat, cattle, pig, gazelle and Mesopotamian fallow deer) (Ibanez et al.
Mankind's great leap forward, as far as archaeologists can determine, occurred almost 10 000 years ago when a tribe of hunter-gatherers from Turkey's southern Anatolia region turned from harvesting vast stands of wild einkorn wheat to sowing it.
This journey included discovering the ancient grain, einkorn, and coming up with artisanal crafted gluten free foods.
We already know that he was eating grains, such as einkorn or emmer.
Teff, maygrass, einkorn (which contains some gluten), sacaton, dropseed, oryzopsis, and tripsacum are some examples.
First planted as a crop in Turkey's Karacadag Mountains 7,500 years ago, einkorn is high in B vitamins and has trhee to four times more beta carotene than other wheat.
A gene isolated from one of the earliest cultivated wheat species, Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), confers resistance to a deadly version of stem rust, scientists report June 27 in Science.