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a group of wheat species in which usually only one grain develops in each spikelet. The compact, flattened head, or ear, has a fragile axis. The spikelets are arranged on the axis singly or in two rows; they are biflorate, with one fertile flower and one usually underdeveloped flower. The grain is scaly and cannot be threshed. The plants are diploid, having two sets of seven chromosomes. Of the four species, one is cultivated and three are wild.

The cultivated species, Triticum monococcum, is a spring plant measuring up to 130 cm high. Its stems are resistant to lodging. In the USSR, the plant is encountered in the Crimea and the Caucasus, where it grows as a rare admixture among plantings of other wheats and as a weed. In some countries of southern Europe, it is grown as a feed crop.

The wild einkorns—wild small spelt (T. boeoticum), T. thaoudar, and T. urarthu—differ from the cultivated einkorn in a number of ways. They are winter crops, and they are shorter than T. monococcum. Their stems generally lodge, and their ears are narrower and more fragile. T. boeoticum and T. thaoudar grow along dry mountain slopes and in light mountain forests in the Balkans, the Crimea, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Southwest Asia. T. urarhu is encountered on dry foothills in Armenia. The young plants are suitable for livestock feed. The hard beaks and awns of the spikelets of mature plants can damage the stomach wall of animals.


Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.


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In addition, einkorn wheat populations were located in the sector of GR, GP, and SRL, which means that these populations had a greater performance for these traits under drought stress conditions.
Furthermore, einkorn wheat can be used to improve genetic diversity on the 'A' genome of bread and durum wheat (Aktas, 2007).
The plant material consisted of 12 bread wheat cultivars; namely, Gerek - 79, Ikizce - 96, Kirac -66, Kenanbey, Flamura - 85, Momtchil, Bayraktar - 2000, Tosunbey, Pandas, Pehlivan, Demir - 2000 and Gun - 91), and 10 different einkorn wheat populations (Populations 1to 10).
Responses of germination characters (GR, GP, CL, SL, RL, SRLR, RFW, RDW, and RFDWR) under drought stress: The effect of drought stress produced by PEG on bread and einkorn wheat genotypes at the seedling stage was investigated under in vitro drought conditions.
Our study clearly confirmed that einkorn wheat populations were more tolerant to drought, and therefore, can be used to improve the CL of wheat cultivars in breeding programs.
Although these bread wheat genotypes produced higher bio-materials for some of the traits at all PEG levels, the proportion of decrease among the einkorn wheat populations due to PEG was lower for almost all the examined traits compared to bread wheat genotypes.
Variation in Spanish cultivated einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.
In one study, Rouse and his colleagues focused on locating a gene in einkorn wheat that confers near immunity to Ug99.