Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Department of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
The effect first noted in 1885 (6) was also explained in the original study by Einthoven
, by the slight interocular differences in transverse chromatic aberration.
The Dutch physiologist, Willem Einthoven
(1860 to 1927), is credited with the development of the clinical electrocardiogram.
The string galvanometer with photographic recordings was presented by Einthoven
To obtain a standard 12-lead ECG, skin electrodes are placed on each of the four extremities (right and left wrist, right and left ankle) as limb leads (Einthoven
In 1903, Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven
, MD, PhD invented the electrocardiograph, a machine that measures the minute electrical currents generated by the heart.
Both Catholic social teachings and the different ways health care is organized around the world are discussed as preliminaries, followed by critical examination of the market-based approaches to health care advocated by Milton Friedman, Regina Herzlinger, Mark Pauly, and Alain Einthoven
. McDonough judges elements of these approaches to be appropriate, so long as they are balanced by the "value dimension approach" of Daniel Callahan, which is "grounded in the meaning of health, in appropriate medical goals, and in economic sustainability."
Number of voltage criteria has been recommended over the years since Einthoven
(8) described the increased R wave amplitude in a patient with mitral regurgitation.
In 1895, Einthoven
identified the 5 primary topographic features of the ECG tracing (P, Q, R, S, and T waves), and defined in 1912 the current standard ECG leads I, II, and III.
Although many individuals contributed to the development of the ECG, Willem Einthoven
perhaps deserves the most credit.