Eisenhower Doctrine


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Eisenhower Doctrine

 

a foreign policy position of the US government regarding the Middle East, adopted after the failure of the Anglo-French-Israeli aggression against Egypt in 1956 and the significant weakening of the position of the colonialist powers in the Middle East. It was developed with the assistance of the US secretary of state, J. F. Dulles. The doctrine was first laid out in an address to Congress by the president of the USA, D. D. Eisenhower, on Jan. 15,1957, and was adopted by means of a congressional resolution in March 1957.

The doctrine was intended to strengthen the position of the USA in the Middle East and to systematically oppose the forces of the national liberation movement. The US president was given the “right” to offer military and economic “aid” to countries in the Middle East and, at his own discretion, to use American armed forces in the area. The doctrine signified the aspiration of the USA to arbitrarily and unilaterally decide questions of war and peace in the Middle East, to interfere in the internal affairs of countries of the area, and to establish control over the foreign policy of these countries. Such objectives were in fundamental contradiction to the interests of peace and security and to the principles of state sovereignty and the independence of peoples. The doctrine grossly violated international law and a number of provisions of the UN Charter. It also violated US constitutional practice, since it bypassed Congress and gave the president virtually uncontrolled military authority.

The USA implemented the doctrine repeatedly (the plots against Syria, 1957; aggression against Lebanon, 1958). The national liberation movements of the peoples of the Arab East—as well as the consistent foreign policy of the USSR and the other countries of the socialist cooperation—directed at ensuring peace and supporting the just demands of the Arab peoples, frustrated the plan of the USA to fully implement the doctrine. However, the basic principles and aims of the Eisenhower doctrine have in open or covert form been a part of US policy regarding the Middle East in later times as well (support of Israel’s aggressive actions and of reactionary forces in Arab states).

References in periodicals archive ?
Lebanon's president, Camille Chamoun, not only embraced the Eisenhower Doctrine but also made moves to suggest he was seeking another term in office.
The Parliament elected in 1957, in what opposition politicians claimed was a rigged election, supported Lebanon's adherence to the Eisenhower Doctrine.
President Eisenhower and they produced-a declaration-known as the Eisenhower Doctrine (to protect Saudi Arabia as if it were part of the USA).
The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine, by Ray Takeyh.
THE ORIGINS OF THE EISENHOWER DOCTRINE THE US, BRITAIN AND NASSER'S EGYPT, 1953-57 By Ray Takeyh published by Macmillan Press ISBN 0 333 80055 9 price 42.
The emergence in the mid-1950s of Gamal Abdel Nasser as the champion of pan-Arabism and the Palestinian cause gave Lebanon's Muslim and progressive groups added support and complicated the government's pro-Western leanings, especially its embrace of the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957.
Or is he simply adding his signature to another US scheme that will not achieve its desired goals - much like the Eisenhower Doctrine, the Nixon Doctrine, the Carter Doctrine and the Reagan Plan?
The Eisenhower Doctrine focused on the Middle East, promising U.
The Eisenhower Doctrine soon offered economic and military assistance to Middle Eastern states in an effort to create a stable, non-Communist sphere of influence for the Western allies.
Foreign policies going by the names of containment and wars of national liberation became obsolete, as did the Truman Doctrine, Eisenhower Doctrine, Nixon Doctrine, Reagan Doctrine and Brezhnev Doctrine that spawned them.
doctrines and strategies which expressed a resolve to contain that challenge included the Truman Doctrine (1948), the Eisenhower Doctrine (1957), Kennedy's flexible response, the corollaries of limited nuclear war, counterinsurgency, the Johnson Doctrine (1865), the Nixon-Kissinger Doctrine (1969), and finally the Carter Doctrine (1980) and Reagan's codicil (1981).