One remarkable feature of the Orkney accent as a variety of English, even if we compare it to various forms of English on a world scale, is that its speakers occasionally use non-pulmonic airstream, resulting in the production of ejectives. To create an ejective, a speaker closes the larynx and raises it, before the closure in the oral cavity is released, as shown in the following figure (taken from Ladefoged and Disner 2012:150; reproduction courtesy of Wiley.
There are some references to ejectives in English in the literature, but most of them are anecdotal (e.g.
The results show a strong correlation between high altitude and the presence of ejectives in languages on, or near, five of the six major high altitude regions on earth where people live.
According to the results, the only region with high elevation where languages with ejectives are absent is the large Tibetan plateau and the adjacent areas.
Final ejectives are pronounced as ejectives in some dialects (Kari 1990; Tuttle 2005b); in others, the glottal component of the consonant occurs as laryngealization on the preceding vowel (Tuttle 2005b).
l) khe ol ces c'uldzes The ejective is heard to Tanzen 'He/she should separate itself as a Eng.
For example, Khan establishes that the emphatics were velarized or uvularized rather than ejectives
, that q was a uvular, that schwa was usually [a], and that r had two allophones, uvular [R]/[[CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and linguo-alveolar [r].
[g] - [k'] [p'igin] - [p'ik'in]: 'ashes' [b] - [p'] [t'ob] - [t'op']: 'to drink' [d] - [t'] [sid] - [sit']: 'man; people The phonemic analysis by Hellenthal & Kutsch Lojenga (2011) shows three series of stops, voiceless, voiced and ejectve on bilabial, alveolar and vear places: /b/ - /p/ - /p'/; /d/ - /t/ - /t'/; /g/ - /k/ - /k'/; however, the pronunciation of the ejectives often occurs to be soft so that they are easily mixed with the corresponding voiced plosives even by people trained in written Amharic where the distinction +/- ejective is crucial.
"soft ejective", most like [b']; the same as in [pamba] 'drum'?
All glottalic models posit (a) ejectives instead of the voiced stops traditionally postulated, and (b) that the labial stop was absent from the ejectivized voiceless series.
(In Nootka voiceless stops may be distinctively ejective, and dorsals may bear distinctive secondary labialization.)
BILABIAL ALVEOLAR PALATO- PALATAL VELAR ALVEOLAR VOICELESS p t k EJECTIVE
p' t' 9 k' STOPS VOICED b d g NASAL m n [??] VOICELESS s f FRICATIVES EJECTIVE
s' VOICED z LATERAL l Liquids TRILL r SEMIVO WEL w j GLOTTAL STOPS ?