The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a system of examinations in the USSR that enables persons not enrolled in an educational institution (external students) to receive certification of attainment of certain levels of education.

Introduced in 1935, eksternat provides certification of completion of the program of study of the eight-year school or the secondary general-education school. External students take examinations at secondary schools selected by the oblast or krai departments of public education or by the ministries of education of the autonomous and Union republics.

Enterprises and institutions grant supplementary leave with pay to external students during the examination period. The minimum age for taking examinations for the eight-year school program is 16, and that for the secondary school program is 18. Examinations may be taken one or two times in a period of not more than two years for the eight-year school and one or more times in a period of not more than three years for the secondary school. Students who pass the prescribed examinations receive either the certificate of the eight-year school or the certificate of secondary education.


Vecherniaia shkola: Spravochnik po voprosam ochnogo i zaochnogo obucheniia rabotaiushchei molodezhi i vzroslykh. Moscow, 1973. Pages 396–402.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.