Simón Bolívar

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Bolívar, Simón

 

Born July 24, 1783, in Caracas, Venezuela; died Dec. 17, 1830, near Santa Marta, Colombia. One of the leaders of the independence struggle of the Spanish colonies in America. Born into a noble Creole family.

Bolívar spent his youth in Europe, in Spain, France, and Italy. Returning to his homeland, he took an active part in the overthrow of Spanish rule in Venezuela (1810) and in its proclamation as a republic (1811). After the latter was smashed by the Spanish, Bolívar settled down in New Granada (now Colombia). In 1813 his troops occupied Caracas; the second Venezuelan republic, headed by Bolívar, was established. However, he was defeated in 1814 and was forced to leave his homeland. A band led by Bolívar once again settled on the shores of Venezuela in 1816. The abolition of slavery (1816) and the decree allocating land to soldiers of the liberation army (1817) helped him obtain the support of the broad masses. In 1819 his troops liberated New Granada, and he was chosen president of the republic of Gran Colombia, which included Venezuela and New Granada. Concluding the rout of the major Spanish forces in Venezuela (1821), Bolivar’s army liberated the province of Quito (present-day Ecuador) in 1822, which was subsequently joined to Gran Colombia. In 1824 he smashed the Spanish forces on the territory of Peru, and in 1825 he became head of the republic of Bolivia—so-named in his honor—which was forming in upper Peru. In the effort to rally and unite the new states of Latin America, Bolívar called a continental congress in Panama (1826). However, he did not succeed in realizing his plans. The separatist actions that began led to the overthrow of Bolivar’s regime in Peru and Bolivia, and they threatened to separate Venezuela and Quito from Colombia. Bolívar retired at the beginning of 1830.

Bolivar’s activity, which aimed at the liquidation of the colonial regime with its characteristic feudal features, objectively furthered the bourgeois development of the countries of South America.

WORKS

Obras completas, vols. 1–2. Havana, 1947.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Bolivar-i-Ponte.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 14.
Lavretskii, I. R. Bolivar, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966. (Bibliography.)

M. S. AL’PEROVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Simon Bolivar was given the title El Libertador by the people of Caracas, Venezuela.
Since Bolivar became a dictator, he should not be called El Libertador or the George Washington of South America.
El Libertador, ridden by Shane Kelly, was deemed to have interfered with Talbot Green close to the line and the stewards found Kelly guilty of careless riding.
El Libertador had lost 27 races on the bounce, for ten different jockeys, before Spencer steered him to victory over the course and distance in April on what was his first outing under the talented rider.
Gask had better luck with El Libertador, who finally lost his maiden tag when taking the 7f handicap.
El Libertador was another longstanding maiden who came in for sustained support in the 7f handicap, but could finish only third as Collect Art made all under Stevie Donohoe for trainer Andrew Haynes, who said: "He's been a little bit disappointing but we thought we'd try something different and on ratings he was the best horse in the race.
Bold Diva, who had managed just two wins in 49 previous starts, was sent off at 20-1 but left recent form behind as she got home by a neck from El Libertador.
The City Kid, who has just been confirmed in foal to Piccolo, returned from a three-month break to take the first division of the 7f handicap under Saleem Golam, the 12-1 shot beating El Libertador by two lengths.
After two runs for Wheeler, El Libertador will now be approaching full fitness, and he should be a double-figure price.