Elamite


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Elamite

(ē`ləmīt'), extinct language of uncertain relationship that was once spoken in the ancient kingdom of ElamElam
, ancient country of Asia, N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris, now in W Iran. A civilization seems to have been established there very early, probably in the late 4th millennium B.C. The capital was Susa, and the country is sometimes called Susiana.
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, located in SW Asia. It appears to be unrelated to any other languages, although some scholars see a kinship between Elamite and Brahui, one of the modern Dravidian languagesDravidian languages
, family of about 23 languages that appears to be unrelated to any other known language family. The Dravidian languages are spoken by more than 200 million people, living chiefly in S and central India and N Sri Lanka.
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. Elamite is an agglutinative language in that different linguistic elements, each of which exists separately and has a fixed meaning, are often joined to form one word. A number of stone inscriptions and clay tablets that have Elamite texts written in cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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 survive. These texts cover a period of about 2,000 years that began at the end of the third millennium B.C.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Elamite

 

the language of the people who inhabited the ancient state of Elam. The linguistic affinity of Elamite has not yet been established, although the most promising line of research would appear to lie in the study of Elamite-Dravidian relationships.

The earliest Elamite texts were written in the Old Elamite period (30th-22nd centuries B.C.) in “proto-Elamite,” which was markedly pictographic; this writing system has not yet been deciphered (seePICTOGRAPHIC WRITING). Toward the end of the period, Elamite adopted the Accadian cuneiform writing. An inscription on the Naram-Sin stele (23rd century B.C.) is the only text that has been preserved from the Old Elamite period.

Texts from the Middle Elamite period (14th–12th centuries B.C), including several bilingual Accadian-Elamite texts, are also known. Texts of the eighth century B.C., unlike those of the preceding periods, are extremely diverse in genre.

Elamite, an agglutinative language, was an official language of the Achaemenid Empire, and the most extensive Elamite texts date from this period. The language of the Achaemenid inscriptions was strongly influenced, however, by Old Persian, which is reflected in such areas as lexicon, syntax, and style and in the presence of numerous caiques.

REFERENCES

D’iakonov, I.M. Iazyki drevnei Pererdnei Azii. Moscow, 1967.
Reiner, E. “The Elamite Language.” In Handbuch der Orientalistik: Altkleinasiatische Sprachen. Leiden-Cologne, 1969.

A. A. KOROLEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
For example Martiya, a rebel in Elam, who was likely Persian and not an Elamite, was defeated or captured by Elamites and delivered to the king.
Ergativity was also found in a number of extinct languages of the ancient Near East: Sumerian, Hattic, and Elamite (all isolates) and Hurrian and Urartian (which are related to one another).
He is the only African-American attempting to confirm the theories of Diop in relation to the genetic unity of the Egyptian, Black African, Elamite, Sumerian and Dravidian languages.
In addition to the three texts of the Behistun inscription in Old Persian, Babylonian and Elamite, a late fifth-century B.C.
I will not be voting Disy because I don't want to support a party that flirts with extremists, nationalists, rejectionists and Elamites, let alone puts such people on their ballot sheets.
Morgan's aim was twofold: first, to reveal the evidences of Elamite civilization, the importance of which was indirectly known by allusions from the Assyrians who destroyed Susa in 648 BCE, and, second, to discover the very origins of eastern civilization, which Morgan assumed to have stemmed from Susiana.
This structure is made of 24 slabs of stones, according to the 'Orartoie' and Elamite principles such as the ziggurat of Choqazanbil.
Water reservoir of Elamite city, Dorantash, in Choghazanbil remains since 2th millennium B.C.
For in the epic Dead Sea battle described in the Bible, Amraphel is portrayed as subservient to the neighboring Elamite king, Chedorlaomer.
The Akkadians emphasized training and technology and used both to prevail for centuries against hostile Gutian, Elamite and Hurrian hill tribes to the East and marauding Amorite desert tribes to the West.
According to a report by Press TV, the tablets date back to the early Elamite period and bear information about the economical situation and the management system of the era.