Cleaver, Eldridge

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Cleaver, Eldridge

(Leroy Eldridge Cleaver), 1935–98, African-American social activist, b. Wabbaseka, Ark. Growing up in Los Angeles, he spent much of 1954–66 in prison for various crimes including rape. In 1966 he joined the staff of Ramparts magazine, and soon became a member of the Black PanthersBlack Panthers,
U.S. African-American militant party, founded (1966) in Oakland, Calif., by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. Originally aimed at armed self-defense against the local police, the party grew to espouse violent revolution as the only means of achieving black
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. In 1968 his book Soul on Ice made him famous. The next year, fleeing arrest following a Panther shootout with Oakland (Calif.) police, he began a period of exile in Cuba, Algeria, and other points, during which he broke with the Panthers. After his return to the United States in 1975, he espoused a wide, even bizarre, range of political, religious, and commercial causes.

Cleaver, Eldridge

(1935–  ) social activist, author; born in Wabbeseka, Ark. Convicted on a marijuana charge (1954), he began a 12-year cycle of prison terms. During this time he obtained a high school diploma, converted to the Black Muslim faith, and began to write. He was a staff writer for Ramparts magazine (1966) and became a much-publicized college lecturer after the release of Soul on Ice (1968), a seminal work on the black experience. He fled the United States (1969) to escape a prison sentence resulting from an alleged shoot-out with the Oakland police. Living in several third-world countries, including Algeria, he returned to the U.S.A. (1979) after battling the Algerian authorities over his connection with an alleged skyjacking incident. Pleading guilty to assaulting an Oakland police officer, he was placed on probation and ordered to do 2,000 hours of community service. He became a "born-again" Christian and by 1982 had become an ardent supporter of the U.S.A.
References in periodicals archive ?
Newton and Bobby Seale sell copies of the Quotations from Chairman of Mao Tes-Tung (the "Little Red Book") at UC Berkeley (1966), assisted in the distribution the first issue of The Black Panther (the official publication of the organization), aided in the recruiting of Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998) to the BPP, participated in the 1967 California legislature armed protest demonstration in Sacramento, California (armed with a 12-gauge shotgun), participated in the protest of the police shooting of Denzil Dowell in north Richmond, California in 1967, and ultimately, how he was assassinated by police in Oakland, California on April 6, 1968 on 28th Street.
After discussing the goals and accomplishments of the People's Anti-Imperialist Delegation, she analyzes the contentious relationships between delegation members, especially sexual and racial conflicts centering on the trip's often domineering leader, exiled Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver.
They failed to free Davis but leapfrogged their way to Algeria with a huge ransom, where they were welcomed by the Algerian president and by exiled Black Panthers leader Eldridge Cleaver.
The author of Soul On Ice, Eldridge Cleaver, has become a soul on the run --an unwilling refugee from his heritage and his mission--a latter-day man without a country.
Bush's subcabinet, and I traveled to Berkeley to spend the day chatting with Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver for Reason.
Footage of key figures including Kwame Ture aka Stokely Carmichael, Dr Martin Luther King Jr, Eldridge Cleaver and Huey P Newton conveys the passions and determination of the era.
Footage of key figures including Kwame Ture aka Stokely Carmichael, Dr Martin Luther King Jr, Eldridge Cleaver and Huey P Newton conveys the passions and determination of the era, augmented with audio interviews from leading contemporary African-American artists, activists, musicians and scholars such as Erykah Badu, Harry Belafonte, Kathleen Cleaver and Talib Kweli.
A brief coda underscores how Wrights paradigm influenced subsequent authors--Chester Himes, Ernest Gaines, William Styron, Eldridge Cleaver whose fiction presents threatening versions of black masculinity.
Unlike King and Soyinka, both Eldridge Cleaver and George Jackson entered prison as common criminals: Cleaver for selling marijuana, and later for rape; Jackson sentenced to one year to life for a $70 robbery and subsequently charged in the death of a guard.
His radicalisation is credited to his girlfriend Sandra Smith whom he met in Los Angeles, and her introducing him to the books of Eldridge Cleaver and Malcom X.
Along the way he remembers the icons of the time: the Kennedys, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Ken Kesey, Joan Didion, the Beatles, Eldridge Cleaver, Bob Dylan and many more.
Ramparts also discovered Eldridge Cleaver, an African American convict who had learned to write in prison.