Eleanor of Aquitaine


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Eleanor of Aquitaine

(ăkwĭtān`, ăk`wĭtān), 1122?–1204, queen consort first of Louis VIILouis VII
(Louis the Young), c.1120–1180, king of France (1137–80), son and successor of King Louis VI. Before his accession he married Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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 of France and then of Henry IIHenry II,
1133–89, king of England (1154–89), son of Matilda, queen of England, and Geoffrey IV, count of Anjou. He was the founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line in England and one of the ablest and most remarkable of the English kings.
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 of England. Daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine, she married Louis in 1137 shortly before his accession to the throne. She accompanied him on the Second Crusade (1147–49). Eleanor bore Louis two daughters, but in 1152 their marriage was annulled. Soon afterward Eleanor married Henry, duke of Normandy and count of Anjou, uniting her vast possessions with those of her husband. Louis VII feared this powerful combination, and when Henry ascended the English throne in 1154, the stage was set for a long struggle between the English and French kings. Eleanor bore Henry three daughters and five sons, and two of the latter, Richard IRichard I,
 Richard Cœur de Lion
, or Richard Lion-Heart,
1157–99, king of England (1189–99); third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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 and JohnJohn,
1167–1216, king of England (1199–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Early Life

The king's youngest son, John was left out of Henry's original division of territory among his sons and was nicknamed John Lackland.
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, became kings of England. Because of Henry's infidelities, especially his relationship with RosamondRosamond
(Rosamond Clifford), d. 1176, mistress of Henry II of England. She was not openly acknowledged by the king until 1174, after he had imprisoned his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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, Eleanor's relations with her husband grew strained, and in 1170 she established a court of her own at Poitiers. She supported her sons in their unsuccessful revolt against Henry in 1173 and was held in confinement by Henry until 1185. Her efforts helped Richard secure the throne in 1189. While Richard was on the Third Crusade and later held captive in Europe (1190–94), Eleanor was active in forestalling the plots against him by his brother John and in collecting the ransom for his release. She brought about a reconciliation between the two brothers, and on Richard's death in 1199 she supported John's claims to the throne over those of Arthur IArthur I,
1187–1203?, duke of Brittany (1196–1203?), son of Geoffrey, fourth son of Henry II of England and Constance, heiress of Brittany. Arthur, a posthumous child, was proclaimed duke in 1196, and an invasion by his uncle King Richard I of England was repulsed
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 of Brittany. Eleanor's court at Poitiers was the scene of much artistic activity and was noted for its cultivation of courtly manners and the concept of courtly love. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes. In literature Eleanor has appeared as the jealous murderess of the "fair Rosamond," but she was apparently innocent of this crime. She was an able and strong-minded woman.

Bibliography

See biographies by M. Meade (1980), D. Seward (1986), Z. Kaplan (1987), and A. Weir (2000).

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Eleanor of Aquitaine

?1122--1204, queen of France (1137--52) by her marriage to Louis VII and queen of England (1154--89) by her marriage to Henry II; mother of the English kings Richard I and John
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Filled with cool women from Eleanor of Aquitaine to Ursula Kemp, this book is a must-read!
In the third and final book, history tells us that King Richard was held for ransom after the Crusades, and Eleanor of Aquitaine, the Queen Mother, and her other son, the evil Prince John, force the poverty-stricken English population to come up with the money.
Thus, within the context of this kingdom, queens--like Eleanor of Aquitaine and her later granddaughters Blanche of Castile, Queen of France, and Berenguela, Queen of Castile and Leon--reinforced their power and authority through familial kinship with their husbands or sons.
Two hundred years later, Eleanor of Aquitaine had 2,500 pounds of violets crushed to make 1 pound of violet attar.
In the legends, Arthur is more than simply a warrior king: he is the symbol and perfect expression of a world of chivalry that is also a world governed by the principles of courtly behavior that new ideology imported from the South of France by the Troubadours who accompanied Eleanor of Aquitaine on the occasion of her two successive marriages.
Robert Lindsay ("Me and My Girl," "Wimbledon') and Lumley play the aging Henry II of England and his estranged wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, whom he's locked in a tower for the past decade while he canoodles with his son's lovely fiancee, Alais (Sonya Cassidy).
VICTORY MALTA 1157: King Richard I was born in Oxford, third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was later known as Richard the Lionheart.
From this almost forgotten incident Helen Castor has woven a richly entertaining account of the lives of Matilda and three other medieval queens, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Isabella of France and Margaret of Anjou.
The ex-PM's missus has paid pounds 1,000 for a miniature por-r trait of herself dressed up as Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Lead Female in a Drama: Deb Campbell: Eleanor of Aquitaine, The Lion In Winter; Briley Meek: Madge Owens, Picnic
Captive Queen A Novel of Eleanor of Aquitaine | ALISON WEIR: Historian and historical novelist Weir has offered quite the one-two punch in the last few months.