Eleanor of Aquitaine


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Eleanor of Aquitaine

(ăkwĭtān`, ăk`wĭtān), 1122?–1204, queen consort first of Louis VIILouis VII
(Louis the Young), c.1120–1180, king of France (1137–80), son and successor of King Louis VI. Before his accession he married Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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 of France and then of Henry IIHenry II,
1133–89, king of England (1154–89), son of Matilda, queen of England, and Geoffrey IV, count of Anjou. He was the founder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line in England and one of the ablest and most remarkable of the English kings.
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 of England. Daughter and heiress of William X, duke of Aquitaine, she married Louis in 1137 shortly before his accession to the throne. She accompanied him on the Second Crusade (1147–49). Eleanor bore Louis two daughters, but in 1152 their marriage was annulled. Soon afterward Eleanor married Henry, duke of Normandy and count of Anjou, uniting her vast possessions with those of her husband. Louis VII feared this powerful combination, and when Henry ascended the English throne in 1154, the stage was set for a long struggle between the English and French kings. Eleanor bore Henry three daughters and five sons, and two of the latter, Richard IRichard I,
 Richard Cœur de Lion
, or Richard Lion-Heart,
1157–99, king of England (1189–99); third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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 and JohnJohn,
1167–1216, king of England (1199–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Early Life

The king's youngest son, John was left out of Henry's original division of territory among his sons and was nicknamed John Lackland.
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, became kings of England. Because of Henry's infidelities, especially his relationship with RosamondRosamond
(Rosamond Clifford), d. 1176, mistress of Henry II of England. She was not openly acknowledged by the king until 1174, after he had imprisoned his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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, Eleanor's relations with her husband grew strained, and in 1170 she established a court of her own at Poitiers. She supported her sons in their unsuccessful revolt against Henry in 1173 and was held in confinement by Henry until 1185. Her efforts helped Richard secure the throne in 1189. While Richard was on the Third Crusade and later held captive in Europe (1190–94), Eleanor was active in forestalling the plots against him by his brother John and in collecting the ransom for his release. She brought about a reconciliation between the two brothers, and on Richard's death in 1199 she supported John's claims to the throne over those of Arthur IArthur I,
1187–1203?, duke of Brittany (1196–1203?), son of Geoffrey, fourth son of Henry II of England and Constance, heiress of Brittany. Arthur, a posthumous child, was proclaimed duke in 1196, and an invasion by his uncle King Richard I of England was repulsed
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 of Brittany. Eleanor's court at Poitiers was the scene of much artistic activity and was noted for its cultivation of courtly manners and the concept of courtly love. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes. In literature Eleanor has appeared as the jealous murderess of the "fair Rosamond," but she was apparently innocent of this crime. She was an able and strong-minded woman.

Bibliography

See biographies by M. Meade (1980), D. Seward (1986), Z. Kaplan (1987), and A. Weir (2000).

Eleanor of Aquitaine

?1122--1204, queen of France (1137--52) by her marriage to Louis VII and queen of England (1154--89) by her marriage to Henry II; mother of the English kings Richard I and John
References in periodicals archive ?
Development of a business area of 200 ha (BIA multi Republic Iv), located in the communes of Poitiers Migne-Auxances in the heart of the Park of Eleanor of Aquitaine activities consists of areas of the Lodge and activities St Nicolas.
THE actress with most Oscars is Katharine Hepburn, who was nominated 12 times and won four Best Actress Oscars for her roles in Morning Glory, Guess Who's Coming To Dinner, Eleanor Of Aquitaine and On Golden Pond.
Hildegard of Bingen and Eleanor of Aquitaine shine as forerunners of feminism.
An impressive work of historical fiction set in England 1202 AD, A King In Spite Of Himself by Alan Macleod is the riveting story of King John and the rescue of Eleanor of Aquitaine (John's mother), by Roger de Clare and William Marshall, Earle of Pembroke.
Close played Eleanor of Aquitaine in Showtime's ``The Lion in Winter,'' an assignment she called ``daunting'' considering Hepburn won an Oscar for the part.
Mr Boyd was for many years a BBC producer and then retired to live in southwestern France where he came across what remains of the ancient Occitan language, the language of Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Portrayed here in essays about their personal and professional lives are Esther, Cleopatra, Boudicca, Zenobia, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Isobel of Spain, Elizabeth I, Christina of Sweden, Maria Theresa, and Catherine the Great.
During the first few years, there were few if any names to write; then as the years went by the blackboard began to fill with the names of "queens, religious leaders, warriors, and writers such as Elizabeth I, Isabella of Castile, Joan of Arc, Lady Jane Grey, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Hildegard of Bingen, Heloise, Margery Kempe, Julian of Norwich, and Christine de Pizan" (xiii).
declaring that Eleanor of Aquitaine was the wife of Henry 11.
Surely half the population knew that Eleanor of Aquitaine was wife of Henry II.
He suspects that they go back even further than St Joan--to the marriage of Henry II to Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152.
focuses on Fontevrault, a double monastery headed by women, and its relationship with several culturally and politically powerful women of the French and English royal families, including Eleanor of Aquitaine.