Ferroelectric are materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization
that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
They occur due to the presence of polarizable bound water at the clay-water interface and weakly bounded ions on the surface of mineral particles, which can slowly move under the influence of an external field and contribute toboth the conduction and electric polarization
where [[??].sub.1] denotes the electric polarization
vector of the most energetic [gamma] quantum and [[??].sub.2] is the momentum of the second most energetic one.
Piezoelectricity is a well-studied electromechanical coupling effect in which the mechanical strain leads to electric polarization
in piezoelectric crystals, or vice versa.
Nevertheless, the universal character of the phenomenon of electric polarization
of substances presumes that the dielectric effect significantly influences metabolism.
The coupling between magnetic and electrical properties allows synchronized control of magnetism and electric polarization
Nowhere in his Treatise does he define an electric polarization
vector (^) (see the next subsection and Section 4.1 for more discussion of electric polarization
The magnetoelectric (ME) effect is a phenomenon in which the electric polarization
can be modified by a magnetic-field or a voltage output can be produced by applying a magnetic-field on the materials, that is, direct ME effect, or, conversely, the magnetism is modified by an electric field [1-3].
This is the reason for the increment of the electric polarization
of the stabilized CPVC sample.
The intensity of the electric polarization
Measurements of the ECE of materials have been performed by measuring the electric polarization
of EC materials and relating the polarization to the corresponding ECE for similar conditions, temperature and applied field.