Here we use the r symbol to represent the polar axis since the [rho] symbol is used for the electric charge density.
For z [not equal to] 0 and t = 0 the electric field E, the magnetic field B and the surface electric charge density [sigma] are distributed around the central axis z with a certain phase.
Equation 1 includes the contributions of diffusion, conduction, and convection to the total electric charge density in the fluid.
The main trends of the electric charge density for a given value of the fluid velocity are easily observed in Fig.
On the other hand, the streaming current was calculated from the integral (2) using the electric charge density obtained from the solution of Eq.
rho]] as electric current density and electric charge density
As stated in the introduction, the present theory is based on the hypothesis of a nonzero electric charge density in the vacuum.
The associated nonzero electric charge density thereby acts somewhat like a "hidden variable".
Here the electric charge density and the related electric field divergence are nonzero in the vacuum state, as supported by the quantum mechanical vacuum fluctuations and the related zero-point energy.
Even if the integrated (total) electric charge of the photon body as a whole vanishes, there is on account of the nonzero electric field divergence a local nonzero electric charge density
In conventional quantum electrodynamics (QED), Maxwell's equations have served as a guiding line and basis when there is a vacuum state with a vanishing electric charge density
and a zero electric field divergence .
rho]] is the local electric charge density
in the vacuum, [[epsilon].