The main trends of the electric charge density for a given value of the fluid velocity are easily observed in Fig.

On the other hand, the streaming current was calculated from the integral (2) using the electric charge density obtained from the solution of Eq.

In fact, the curves of electric charge density versus average velocity in the presence of slip are complex and describe several regimes.

Thus, the maximum in the electric charge density appears at lower average velocities and has a smaller magnitude for the polymers with higher [M.

As stated in the introduction, the present theory is based on the hypothesis of a nonzero electric charge density in the vacuum.

The associated nonzero electric charge density thereby acts somewhat like a "hidden variable".

Here the electric charge density and the related electric field divergence are nonzero in the vacuum state, as supported by the quantum mechanical vacuum fluctuations and the related zero-point energy.

Even if the integrated (total) electric charge of the photon body as a whole vanishes, there is on account of the nonzero electric field divergence a local nonzero electric charge density

The nonzero divergence of the electric field in the present theory allows for a local nonzero electric charge density, even if the photon has a vanishing net charge.

In conventional quantum electrodynamics (QED), Maxwell's equations have served as a guiding line and basis when there is a vacuum state with a vanishing

electric charge density and a zero electric field divergence [8].

rho]] is the local

electric charge density in the vacuum, [[epsilon].