With the impedance ratio of K = 0.015, the electrical length
of the low-impedance coupled line and high-impedance line of the SIR is calculated as [[theta].sub.0] = 15[degrees] using (3).
Microstrip lines TL4, TL5, and TL6 are used to adjust the electrical length
and characteristic impedance so that the actual transistor's output impedance is close to the ideal output impedance without packaging.
This occurs when the measuring field wavelength is comparable to the electrical length
of the coil's conductor.
The electrical length
[L.sub.3]/2 of the RH TL is [pi]/4 rad at 22.5 GHz.
A ring resonator is shunted with four capacitive elements, [C.sub.r], at the edges of the ring lines to vary the nominal electrical length
, [l.sub.r], of the ring.
The total electrical length
of the feeding line can be treated as [L.sub.1] + [L.sub.2] - [G.sub.1], which equals about [[lambda].sub.g]/2 at 2.45 GHz.
The characteristic impedance of the three steps is [Z.sub.1], [Z.sub.2] and [Z.sub.3] having electrical length
[[theta].sub.1], [[theta].sub.2] and [[theta].sub.3].
1(a), where the [Z.sub.0] and [[theta].sub.0] is the characteristic impedance and the electrical length
It is clear that [Z.sup.even.sub.in] is capacitive starting from DC till the electrical length
of the stubs ([L.sub.c]/2) exceeds [pi]/2 where it becomes inductive.
But as the rise time of the signal approaches the electrical length
of the via, it becomes important to include greater detail in the model, such as more accurately including the effect of the via return path.
These parameters include overall electrical length
, contact resistance, inductance, and capacitance, all of which affect operating bandwidth.