electroconvulsive therapy

(redirected from Electro-convulsive therapy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms.

electroconvulsive therapy

in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish psychiatrist, using insulin; L. J. Meduna, an American psychiatrist, using Metrazol; and Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini, Italian psychiatrists, using electric shock. Metrazol and insulin accounted for a very limited number of remissions in cases of schizophrenia. However, the injection of insulin often caused coma, while Metrazol and electric shock resulted in convulsions similar to those of epileptics.

Advances in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have made it the standard mechanism of shock therapy. ECT has had unquestionable success with involutional melancholia and other depressive disorders, although it may be ineffective or only temporarily effective. ECT is generally employed only after other therapies for depression, mania, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia have proven ineffective. The administration of anesthetics and muscle relaxants prior to ECT has greatly reduced the risk of injury during the procedure, which is typically administered six to eight times over a period of several weeks. The seizure lasts for up to 20 seconds, and the patient can be up and about in about an hour. Long-term memory loss is the main significant potential side effect; headache, muscle stiffness, and temporary short-term memory loss may occur. Why ECT works, however, is still not understood, but it may be due to changes in brain chemistry caused by procedure, such as neurotransmittersneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
..... Click the link for more information.
 released in the brain, or to a reduction in brain activity in certain areas after the procedure.


See A. S. Hermreck and A. P. Thal, The Adrenergic Drugs and Their Use in Shock Therapy (1968); L. B. Kalinowsky and H. Hippius, Pharmacological, Convulsive, and other Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry (1969).

electroconvulsive therapy

[i¦lek·trō·kən¦vəl·səv ′ther·ə·pē]
The technique of eliciting convulsions by applying an electric current through the brain of a human or an experimental animal for a brief period by means of electrodes that are placed on the head; sometimes used as a treatment for severe mental depression.
References in periodicals archive ?
4) Cancer's six albums include such family-friendly foot-tappers as Kill Date, Meat Train, Electro-Convulsive Therapy and Tasteless Incest.
Show me a woman who is happy with her looks and I'll show you the electro-convulsive therapy scorch marks -- Best selling writer Kathy Lette.
The article entitled "Prospective, Long-Term, Multicenter Study of the Naturalistic Outcomes of Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression," reports outcomes for 124 patients, at 13 study sites, with severe TRD treated with medications, electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) and/or psychotherapy over a period of two years.
The unprecedented study followed 124 patients with severe TRD treated with medications, electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) and/or psychotherapy over a period of two years.
This is the time to consider the option of electro-convulsive therapy.
The VNS studies targeted patients with extreme treatment-resistant depression that are excluded from other antidepressant studies, including studies of electro-convulsive therapy (ECT).
Although there are many safe and effective acute antidepressants including medications, psychotherapy and electro-convulsive therapy (ECT), there are no FDA-approved, informed-use, safe and effective long-term treatments for TRD.

Full browser ?