electroconvulsive therapy

(redirected from Electro-shock therapy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
Related to Electro-shock therapy: lobotomy

electroconvulsive therapy

in psychiatry, treatment of mood disorders by means of electricity; the broader term "shock therapy" also includes the use of chemical agents. The therapeutic possibilities of these treatments were discovered in the 1930s by Manfred Sakel, a Polish psychiatrist, using insulin; L. J. Meduna, an American psychiatrist, using Metrazol; and Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini, Italian psychiatrists, using electric shock. Metrazol and insulin accounted for a very limited number of remissions in cases of schizophrenia. However, the injection of insulin often caused coma, while Metrazol and electric shock resulted in convulsions similar to those of epileptics.

Advances in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have made it the standard mechanism of shock therapy. ECT has had unquestionable success with involutional melancholia and other depressive disorders, although it may be ineffective or only temporarily effective. ECT is generally employed only after other therapies for depression, mania, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia have proven ineffective. The administration of anesthetics and muscle relaxants prior to ECT has greatly reduced the risk of injury during the procedure, which is typically administered six to eight times over a period of several weeks. The seizure lasts for up to 20 seconds, and the patient can be up and about in about an hour. Long-term memory loss is the main significant potential side effect; headache, muscle stiffness, and temporary short-term memory loss may occur. Why ECT works, however, is still not understood, but it may be due to changes in brain chemistry caused by procedure, such as neurotransmittersneurotransmitter,
chemical that transmits information across the junction (synapse) that separates one nerve cell (neuron) from another nerve cell or a muscle. Neurotransmitters are stored in the nerve cell's bulbous end (axon).
..... Click the link for more information.
 released in the brain, or to a reduction in brain activity in certain areas after the procedure.

Bibliography

See A. S. Hermreck and A. P. Thal, The Adrenergic Drugs and Their Use in Shock Therapy (1968); L. B. Kalinowsky and H. Hippius, Pharmacological, Convulsive, and other Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry (1969).

electroconvulsive therapy

[i¦lek·trō·kən¦vəl·səv ′ther·ə·pē]
(psychology)
The technique of eliciting convulsions by applying an electric current through the brain of a human or an experimental animal for a brief period by means of electrodes that are placed on the head; sometimes used as a treatment for severe mental depression.
References in periodicals archive ?
We share her outrage, shedding tears as the asylum's insidious head doctor (O'Hare) threatens to destroy Christine's resolve with electro-shock therapy.
We share her sense of outrage, shedding tears as the asylum's insidious head doctor (Denis O'Hare) threatens to destroy Christine's resolve with electro-shock therapy.
Following that incident he had a severe breakdown and received electro-shock therapy and other treatment from BUPA.
We share Christine's sense of outrage, shedding tears as the asylum's insidious head doctor (O'Hare) threatens to destroy her resolve with electro-shock therapy.
Homeland (Channel 4, today, 9pm) | ADMIT it - when the first series of Homeland ended with Carrie remembering a vital clue that supported her theory that Brody had been turned by al-Qaeda just as she was about to undergo potentially memory-erasing electro-shock therapy, you suspected the entire second run would mostly be about her rebuilding her case from scratch.
Alongside Green's success, though, was liberal drug use which eventually sawhim spiral into schizophrenia, the treatment for which included electro-shock therapy.