Pikulev, "Internal electrochromism
in vanadium pentoxide xerogel films," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol.
They studied their complexes with various metal ions and reported visible electrochromism
for ruthenium-bipyridine complexes .
Gallo, "Resolution of electron and proton transfer events in the electrochromism
associated with quinone reduction in bacterial reaction centers," Photosynthesis Research, vol.
, Fundamentals and Applications, Weinheim VCH.
Most of the films investigated showed reversible color changes (electrochromism
) during the redox process and CV cycling.
It is disappointing that the authors do not extend their treatment into giving guidance and recommendations for design (which they perhaps might have felt was beyond their self-set brief), and their reference to new technologies is scant, and sometimes wrong (for example in relation to silica aerogel and electrochromism
Other areas such as "electrochromism
" (color changes caused by electricity) are also emerging.
Studies of the molecular mechanisms that result in potential-dependent optical properties have produced evidence supporting three mechanisms (for different dyes): dipole rotation, electrochromism
, and a potential-sensitive monomer-dimer equilibrium.
This way, metallic properties arise such as optical, magnetic, electrochromism
and new paths for light emission, to mention the most relevant.
These films have potential applications in the fields of photoelectrochemistry [12,13], photocatalysis [7,14-16], electrocatalysis [17,18], photochromism , sensors [9,19], and electrochromism
Kugler, "Switchable optical polarizer based on electrochromism
in stretch-aligned polyani line," Applied Physics Letters, vol.83, no.7, pp.1307-1309, 2003.
Unlike inorganic compounds, intrinsically conducting polymers are more attractive electrochromic materials because of their relatively low-optical switch potentials, fast response, and colorful electrochromism