electron avalanche


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electron avalanche

[i′lek‚trän ′av·ə‚lanch]
(electronics)
References in periodicals archive ?
After the thermal field electron emission, under the effect of high-strength electric field, the electron avalanche ionizations are generated in the interelectrode dielectric; when the electron avalanche ionizations reach the anode, the dielectric is broken down and the discharge channel is formed.
The first several chapters discuss the basics of photoionization, mechanisms of electron avalanche multiplication, engineering of position and time sensitivity, selection of appropriate gas vapor, liquid and solid photocathodes, and specific materials including cesium salts.
It has been well recognized that when electrons in a vacuum cavity of microwave device are accelerated by high-power electric fields, their impingements against the metallic surface of the cavity may result in a self-sustained electron avalanche, i.e., multipactor discharge [1-5].
Merkle and Kitriotis [10] reported that both single and multiple pulse (16 ns at 1064 nm, 10 ns at 532 nm) damage differed very little between 80 K and 295 K, and they compared the temperature dependence with several damage mechanisms, including multiphoton absorption, electron avalanche, inclusion heating, and bond breaking.
Multipaction is a nonlinear effect that may appear in microwave devices operating with high power and lowpressure conditions (lower than 1.3 x [10.sup.-3] Pa), resulting in resonant electron avalanche between the inner metal surfaces of a component.
"What's new here is that the same electron avalanche likely responsible for the gamma-ray emission also produces the VLF radio bursts, and this gives us a new window into understanding this phenomenon," said Joseph Dwyer, a physics professor at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Fla., and a member of the study team.
Hence, it can be concluded that the occurrence of the sparking can be due to the electron avalanche and high temperature (at least 2500[degrees] C) into the pores of the coating.
Their topics include the bulk growth of MCT, properties of Cd(Zn)Te relevant to use as substrates, the liquid-phase epitaxy, mechanical and thermal properties, band structure and related properties, extrinsic doping, photovoltaic infrared detectors, and electron avalanche photo-diodes.
Chapters are in sections on IR detection performance criteria, IR detector materials, intrinsic direct bandgap semiconductors, HgCdTe as the material of choice for tactical systems, uncooled detection, HgCdTe electron avalanche photodiodes, and future HgCdTe developments.
Multipaction, short for multiple impacts, is an electron avalanche phenomena discovered in the 1920s by the pioneers of early high-frequency vacuum tubes.
Then, the process quickly sparks an electron avalanche vaporizing everything within the laser spot.
A discharge occurs when free electrons within the gap are accelerated by the field, strike the surfaces and initiate an electron avalanche by the release of secondary electrons, as shown in Figure 1.

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