Detectors struck by calcium ions set off an electron cascade
that amplifies signal.
The result is the first step towards making a multi-layer membrane structure, in which each layer contains different elements that form part of an electron cascade
, and that work together to produce clean energy.
Muller notes that the ionization from a meteor can last a second or more, and that lightning in the clouds below can trigger an electron cascade
during that time.
In terms of their "relative biological effectiveness" -- or toxicity -- the electron cascade
is at least as damaging as X-rays, sometimes considerably more so, depending on the number of electrons in the cascade.