The disadvantage of chemical functionalization is that it destroys the [pi] electron clouds
of CNTs to a certain extent and reduces the inherent conductivity of CNTs.
The electron clouds
, which scientists call orbitals, morph into different shapes at staggering speeds.
The scanning tunneling microscope's (STM] needle-like probe enables researchers to image the electron clouds
Zhihao Hao from University of Waterloo's Department of Physics and Astronomy have experimentally shown that electron clouds
in superconducting materials can snap into an aligned and directional order called nematicity.
Another engine allows students to model electrons, electron clouds
, and electron tunneling; a chemical reactions engine allows them to play with reactions, activation energy, and bond strength.
The electron clouds
of a wax are evenly distributed throughout the molecule.
The model is based on first-principles, quantum mechanical calculations that follow the changes in the electron clouds
surrounding the molecular backbone when a voltage is applied across a molecule.
The superpowerful microscope can peer through electron clouds
that surround atoms and pinpoint individual atoms.
Although this type of electron movement is classically forbidden, it can be understood by envisioning electron clouds
that co-exist between the sample surface and the tip.
ORBITAL TOMOGRAPHY: FAST LASERS SET SIGHTS ON ELECTRON CLOUDS
So with each passage of the atoms, the generator checks to be sure its pulsations exactly match the signal from a chosen energy transition in the atoms' electron clouds
- an electromagnetic wave that beats 9,192,631,770 times a second.
Like heat swells the air in a hot-air balloon, so-called "blackbody radiation" (BBR) enlarges the size of the electron clouds
within the atom, though to a much lesser degree-by one part in a hundred trillion, a size that poses a severe challenge to precision measurement.