While the Moon's gamma-ray glow is surprising and impressive, the Sun does shine brighter in gamma rays with energies higher than 1 billion electron volts
. Cosmic rays with lower energies do not reach the Sun because its powerful magnetic field screens them out.
Using the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, a different team of researchers collected readings of gamma rays exceeding 100 trillion electron volts
. The findings of their study were published in the online database (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.12518.pdf) Arxiv .
Moving at top speed, your average ant will create roughly the equivalent of one trillion electron volts
. So, multiply that by 13, and you have some idea of how much energy we're talking.
But on Monday, researchers achieved a record energy level of 1.18 trillion electron volts
, and without incident.
The new results show an unexpected surplus of cosmic ray electrons at very high energy - 300-800 billion electron volts
- that must come from a previously unidentified source or from the annihilation of very exotic theoretical particles used to explain dark matter.
The field accelerates the ions toward the target with energies up to several hundred electron volts
. On impact, particles start a cascade of collisions near the surface, ejecting sputtered target atoms.
The resulting energies, ranging from 3 million to 10 million electron volts
and coupled with 1 kW to 50 kW of power, have sufficient energy to penetrate most products in their final shipping containers.
of Middleton, Wis., for commercialization of a revolutionary microcalorimeter-based X-ray detector with an energy resolution of two electron volts
, some 50 times better than conventional semiconductor-based detectors.
The facilities will include a proton synchrotron, in which protons will be accelerated to 50 billion electron volts
, and a neutron diffusing facility.
Most cosmic rays have energies of millions or billions of electron volts
, but some are much more energetic.
By 1954, a particle accelerator capable of accelerating protons to an energy of 5 to 6 billion electron volts
(BeV) had been built at the University of California.
The low energy X-rays, as previously suggested, was a result of the collision between hot stellar winds going up to 40 million degrees Celsius, but the "hard" X-rays had energies more than 30,000 electron volts
, which is much more than what could be explained by the collision of winds.