Particle manipulation and fluid flow control using AC electro-osmosis have been reported in various forms, such as biased AC electroosmosis
[11, 12], and 3D AC electro-osmosis pump [13, 14], travelling wave AC electro-osmosis pump , asymmetric electrode AC electro-osmosis pump  and particle traps [17-20].
The resulting flow from AC electroosmosis
and ETF observed by Wang et al.
Seventeen chapters cover basic concepts, governing equations, basic flow solutions, hydraulic resistance and compliance, diffusion, time-dependent flow, capillary effects, electrohydrodynamics, electroosmosis
, dielectrophoresis, magnetophoresis, thermal transfer, two-phase flow, complex flow patterns, acoustofluidics, optofluidics, and nanofluidics.
Design-modeling tools are needed that rapidly simulate the complex underlying phenomena such as electroosmosis
, electrophoresis, sample dispersion, mixing, and biochemical reactions without significantly compromising accuracy (1-5).
There are also electro thermal forces, in which the current creates non-uniform heating in the fluid, leading to coulomb and dielectric forces; and electroosmosis
, in which ion flow creates tiny forces in the fluid.
High-resolution separations based on electrophoresis and electroosmosis
is electric-field-induced fluid movement resulting from the surface charge on the microchannel walls.
In situ experiments on low permeability soils provide evidence that pump-and-treat flow rates can be increased using electroosmosis
in conjunction with emplacement of granular graphite within hydraulic fractures (Murdoch and Chen 1997).
Navy during the war, later met a number of German engineers who told him that this use of electroosmosis
was fairly common.
The magnitude of mass transport by electroosmosis
is often at least one order of magnitude less than that induced by electrical migration.
Electrokinetic phenomena such as electrophoresis and electroosmosis
have been widely studied in microchannels.
A significant limitation of electrophoretic mobility and streaming potential measurements, both classified under electroosmosis
techniques, is that only an average value of the zeta potential/streaming potential is detected--regardless of whether the surface charge distribution is homogeneous or otherwise.