Increasing production in copper electrorefining by means of the Isa process has been discussed by Sako et al(55).
The Removal of Nickel from Copper Electrorefining Bleed-Off Electrolyte.
III Electrorefining and Hydrometallurgy of Copper; and Vol IV the Pyrometallurgy of Copper.
III, in the section on electrorefining, has nine papers describing refinery modernisations or expansions, four on quality improvements, six on anode behaviour, and four on cathode quality.
The residual slimes from the silver electrorefining contain gold and PGMs.
Key in the Boliden precious metals process is that gold refining is performed without using the traditional electrorefining steps.
The role of precious metals values may be important as these are recovered in the smelting-electrorefining electrorefining
route but are lost in the leaching-electrowinning system.
The copper refinery comprises electrowinning (from copper SX plant solutions) and electrorefining
The company's technology arm is responsible for the ISA electrorefining
process, Isasmelt submerged lance smelting processes for copper and lead, the Jameson flotation cell, and several other developments.
Volume III covers Hydrometallurgy and the Electrometallurgy of Copper, under the following headings: leaching of copper minerals-theory and practice (5 papers); bacterial leaching and leaching of tailings (5 papers); separation and recovery processes (5 papers); impurity control and by-products (8 papers); copper electrorefining
, cathode substrates and anode passivation (9 papers); electrorefining
tankhouse operations and modernisation (9 papers); copper electrowinning (3 papers); and copper refining developments (6 papers).
Downstream, the anode and electrorefining
facilities will also be upgraded at competitive plants.