For the experimental characterization of individual cells, non-invasive AC electrokinetic techniques such as electrorotation (ER), dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electroorientation (EO) are used, whereas for biological cell suspensions the dielectric spectroscopy (DS) technique is generally applied [3-6].
Contrary to DS systems, experimental single-cell electrorotation chambers are very complex and need to be carefully characterized to ensure the validity and accuracy of the measurements [23-25].
To determine the high number of independently accessible electrical and geometrical parameters imposed by the complexity of the model used in the analysis, we measure and calculate electrorotation spectra for different stages of yeast growth and environmental conditions.
The image analysis of the electrorotation of the yeast cell was performed using ImageJ, a public domain Java-based image processing program.
Spherical particles can be made to rotate through electrorotation methods (177).
Jones, Basic theory of dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine 22, 33-42 (2003).
Schwan, Electrorotation and levitation of cells and colloidal particles, Biophys.
They then switch focus to nonequilibrium electrokinetic phenomena in chapters discussing field-induced dielectric polarization, field-induced double layer polarization, dielectrophoresis, and electrorotation
In particular, we wished to determine whether electrorotation measurements are capable of detecting the viability of single Escherichia coli microorganisms attached to latex beads.
For the electrorotation experiments, the rotating electric field was generated by energizing four electrodes with sinusoidal voltages of 90[degrees] phase separation.
Antibody-coated latex beads therefore exhibit a distinct electrorotation spectrum.
1 also shows that the electrorotation spectrum of an antibody-coated bead is markedly altered when either a single viable or nonviable E.