Electrotyping


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electrotyping

[i′lek·trə‚tīp·iŋ]
(graphic arts)
The process of making an electrotype.

Electrotyping

 

(in Russian, gal’vanostereotipiia), a method of making copies of the forms for letterpress printing (stereotypes) by galvanoplastics. It was used for the first time in the world in 1839 to duplicate printed forms at the ekspeditsiia (separate administrative branch or subdivision) for the preparation of government papers in St. Petersburg.

Electrotyping involves the making of a matrix, the electrolytic deposition of a metal (usually copper) on the matrix to obtain the printing form (when the deposited metallic layer reaches the necessary thickness of 0.25 to 0.30 mm, it is separated from the matrix), and finishing. Electrotyping gives a more accurate reproduction of the original (base) form than the usual cast stereotype. The wear resistance of copper electrotyping stereotypes is sufficient to give 200,000-250,000 impressions (zinc stereotypes give 25,000-30,000 impressions). After additional coating with a thin layer of iron or nickel, an electrotype can give 1 million impressions. The method is used mainly for printing books and periodicals containing a large number of illustrations, as well as for high-circulation color reproductions.

References in periodicals archive ?
The development of electroplating and electrotyping in the 1840s coincided with a vogue for naturalism, leading to the creation of realistic-looking models of plants and animals.
This piece is knowledgeable, but gappy, omitting the growing popularity of lithography and its typographical successor chromolithography, as well as the impact of technological innovations such as electrotyping and the gravure processes.
Bible publishing was on the cutting edge of print technology throughout the early 1800s, often pioneering such innovations as in-house binding, permanent type sets, power presses, copper plates for illustrations, and electrotyping to place pictures and text on the same page.
Without denying the significance of such highly touted supply-side inventions as the steam-driven flatbed press, stereotyping, and electrotyping, Zboray also notes the equally important if usually overlooked demand-side improvements in eyeglasses and lighting.
Departments existed for "superintendents, accounting, advertising, editoria, circulation, main press, power, engraving, composing, electrotyping, job press, proofreading, pattern, shipping, folding, stencil, subscription, agents, installment.
This was the method in general use for casting bronze sculptures until the invention of electrotyping in the 19th century, which allowed a thin layer of bronze to be deposited by electrolysis onto a mould, although better quality bronzes were still made using the old methods.