Elementary Mathematics


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Elementary Mathematics

 

a somewhat vaguely defined part of mathematics. Elementary mathematics embraces the branches, problems, and methods of mathematics in which the general concepts of, for example, variable, function, and limit are not used. In other words, it uses the general mathematical concepts (abstractions) that took shape before the appearance of mathematical analysis. Within the framework of these concepts it has continued to develop and has even obtained new results (seeMATHEMATICS: History of mathematics up to the 19th century: Period of elementary mathematics).

Elementary mathematics encompasses primarily arithmetic, elementary number theory, elementary algebra, elementary geometry, and trigonometry. It may be concisely characterized as the mathematics of constants. This description, however, is not entirely accurate, since elementary mathematics deals not only with constant quantities but also with geometric figures, whose “magnitude”—for example, position—may not be pertinent to the problem at hand. Moreover, the purview of elementary mathematics extends to such variable quantities as trigonometric functions.

The variable quantities dealt with in elementary mathematics are defined in a special manner. The determination of the circumference of a circle provides an illustration of this idea. In essence, such a determination makes use of the concept of limit, but not in a general form; a specially defined sequence is considered—the sequence of perimeters of inscribed and circumscribed polygons. The general concepts of function and limit fall beyond the scope of elementary mathematics, as do the general concepts of curve and surface; indeed, the only figures dealt with in elementary mathematics are those given by a special construction.

Number theory often makes use of “elementary” proofs, in which the methods of mathematical analysis are not employed. This elementary number theory, it should be noted, is not at all elementary in the sense of being characterized by simplicity.

The term “elementary mathematics” is also applied to the mathematical disciplines studied in secondary general-education schools. In this sense elementary mathematics is distinguished from higher mathematics.

References in periodicals archive ?
In 2014, he was assigned by Teach for Qatar, a non-governmental organization seeking solutions to the challenges faced by students in Qatar, to be an elementary mathematics teacher at Al Ahnaf Bin Qais Elementary School for Boys.
In 2014, he was assigned by Teach for Qatar, a non-governmental organisation seeking solutions to the challenges faced by students in Qatar, to be an elementary mathematics teacher at Al Ahnaf Bin Qais Elementary School for Boys.
One of the reasons our capable and intelligent youngsters are not learning their elementary mathematics is the small amount of time spent on this subject.
The IMC was formed in 2008, when the International World Youth Mathematics Competition, founded by National Kaohsiung Normal University in 1999, and the Elementary Mathematics International Competition, founded by Thailand's Ministry of Education, was combined and renamed.
Alabama State Superintendent Eric Mackey was pleased with the results and met with the deans of the colleges of education to discuss how they can do better preparing teacher candidates' to teach elementary mathematics, social studies and science classes.
Personalized Learning in Elementary Mathematics: Strategies for Success
Play games that deal with maths and the tools on hand to win them, like the Casio fx-55 Plus, a scientific calculator which helps students learn elementary mathematics such as fractions, division with remainders and random numbers.
'About three weeks ago, we offered Mr Makinde tuition in elementary mathematics but with his recent outburst, we are convinced Mr Makinde needs an additional course in elementary Public Sector Finance, to be offered free of charge by the APC.'
Is it any wonder that annual reports measuring the quality of learning, especially in lower primary school, always paint a miserable picture about Standard Four pupils who cannot do elementary mathematics or write their names?However, the problem can hardly be blamed solely on the quality of the trainees.
The third article examines how computer programming can be infused in elementary mathematics classrooms through rich coding applications, effective training of elementary teachers, and using the applications to bridge learning across all content areas.
Mainly for students and coaches preparing for national or international mathematical Olympiads, but also for anyone who is interested in classical problems of elementary mathematics, Andreescu and Dispinescu collect problems from various competitions and journals.

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