Additionally, our research uncovered twenty-six individual manuscripts that fed into Whitman's essay "Notes (such as they are) founded on Elias Hicks
," first published in November Boughs in 1888.
The split was largely instigated by reformer Elias Hicks, who felt that the prevailing "Orthodox" Quaker faith was becoming too Protestant, relying on Biblical authority instead of the Inner Light as the primary source of truth.
Warner--a Presbyterian--recalled that attendance at the Quaker meetings was large "until the heretical doctrines of Elias Hicks ...
He traces its roots to the Scottish philosophy of an innate "moral sense," the Unitarian theology of William Ellery Channing, the schismatic Quakerism of Elias Hicks
, and the historical fiction of Catherine Maria Sedgwick, Lydia Sigourney, Lydia Maria Child, and Eliza Lee Buckminster.
Yes, he tells us that as a boy he was electrified by hearing a sermon by Elias Hicks
of the Quaker Church on Joralemon Street in Brooklyn.
By 1827, the Quakers in America had separated into two groups: mainly rural, conservative Quakers, or "Hicksites," led by his cousin Elias Hicks
, who urged members to adhere to the plain, simple life and reliance on the Inward Light; and affluent, urban, English-oriented "Orthodox" Friends, who advocated a more worldly life and emphasized the "outward" authority of church elders and Scripture.
The poet's religious views were deeply influenced by those of Hicks, and in <IR> NOVEMBER BOUGHS </IR> (1888) he paid a warm tribute to the preacher, Notes on Elias Hicks
. Among Hicks's writings are Observations on the Slavery of the Africans (1811) and The Quaker (4 v.
Split in the 19th century over the doctrines of <IR> ELIAS HICKS
</IR> , the group is now largely unified.