Granada

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Granada

(gränä`thä), city (1995 pop. 74,396), W Nicaragua, on Lake Nicaragua. It is Nicaragua's third largest city and the center of commerce on Lake Nicaragua. Located in a rich agricultural region, Granada has been the stronghold of Nicaragua's landed aristocracy; manufactures include furniture, soap, and clothing. Granada was founded in 1524 by Francisco Fernández de CórdobaFernández de Córdoba, Francisco
, d. 1526?, Spanish conquistador. Sent in 1523 by Pedro Arias de Ávila to deprive Gil González de Ávila (d.
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. In the 17th cent., it was the object of repeated raids by French and English pirates. After independence from Spain (1821), Granada became the conservative center, engaging in bloody rivalry with LeónLeón,
city (1995 pop. 125,117), W Nicaragua. It is Nicaragua's second largest city and the rail and commercial center between Corinto and Managua. It was founded in 1524 on Lake Managua by Francisco Fernández de Córdoba and moved west to its present site in
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, the city of the liberals. The struggle led to the capital's transfer to ManaguaManagua
, city (1995 pop. 819,731), W Nicaragua, capital and largest city of Nicaragua, on the southern shore of Lake Managua. It is the commercial and industrial center of the country. Situated on the Inter-American Highway, the city is the hub of Nicaragua's railroads.
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 (1855). Granada was captured (1855) by the filibuster William WalkerWalker, William,
1824–60, American filibuster in Nicaragua, b. Nashville, Tenn. Walker, a qualified doctor, a lawyer, and a journalist by the time he was 24, sought a more adventurous career.
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.

Granada,

city (1990 pop. 268,674), capital of Granada prov., S Spain, in Andalusia, at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers. Formerly (17th cent.) a silk center, Granada is now a trade and processing point for an agricultural area that is also rich in minerals. Beautifully situated at the foot of the Sierra NevadaSierra Nevada
, chief mountain range of S Spain, in Granada prov., running from east to west for c.60 mi (100 km), parallel to the Mediterranean Sea. The range's highest peak is Mulhacén (11,411 ft/3,478 m).
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, the city also is a major tourist center, attractive because of its art treasures and rich history. Ski resorts in the nearby mountains also bring many visitors to the area.

Located in Granada is the famous AlhambraAlhambra
[Arab.,=the red], extensive group of buildings on a hill overlooking Granada, Spain. They were built chiefly between 1230 and 1354 and they formed a great citadel of the Moorish kings of Spain.
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, an old Moorish citadel and royal palace, which dominates the city and the old Muslim quarter from a hill; on the same hill is the palace of Emperor Charles V. The Palacio del Generalife, summer residence of the Moorish rulers, has celebrated gardens. Christian edifices include a 16th-century cathedral, in late Gothic and plateresque style; the adjoining royal chapel, containing the tombs of Ferdinand and Isabella; and a Carthusian monastery (16th cent.). There is also a museum dedicated to the poet and dramatist Federico García LorcaGarcía Lorca, Federico
, 1898–1936, Spanish poet and dramatist, b. Fuente Vaqueros. The poetry, passion, and violence of his work and his own tragic and bloody death brought him enduring international acclaim.
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. Across the Darro River and facing the Alhambra is the Sacromonte hill, honeycombed with Romani (Gypsy) caves.

Granada was originally a Moorish fortress and rose to prominence during the AlmoravidAlmoravids
, Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Morocco and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th cent. The Almoravids may have originated in what is now Mauritania. The real founder was Abd Allah ibn Yasin, who by military force converted a number of Saharan tribes to his own
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 and AlmohadAlmohads
, Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Morocco and Spain in the 12th and 13th cent. It had its origins in the puritanical sect founded by Ibn Tumart, who stirred up (c.1120) the tribes of the Atlas Mts. area to purify Islam and oust the Almoravids.
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 dynasties. In 1238 it became the seat of the kingdom of Granada, last refuge of the Moors whom the Christian reconquest had driven south; the kingdom occupied the present provinces of Almería and Málaga and parts of Jaén and Cádiz. The concentration of Moorish civilization in Granada gave the city great splendor and made it a center of commerce, industry, art, and science. However, the kingdom was weakened by continuous feuds among noble families, notably the Zegris and the Abencerages, and was conquered by Ferdinand IIFerdinand II
or Ferdinand the Catholic,
1452–1516, king of Aragón (1479–1516), king of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V, 1474–1504), king of Sicily (1468–1516), and king of Naples (1504–16).
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 and Isabella IIsabella I
or Isabella the Catholic,
1451–1504, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1474–1504), daughter of John II of Castile. In 1469 she married Ferdinand of Aragón (later King Ferdinand II of Aragón and Ferdinand V of Castile).
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 during the reign of Boabdil (Muhammad XIMuhammad XI,
d. 1538, last sultan of Granada in Spain (1482–92); also called Boabdil by the Spanish. He seized the throne from his father and thus plunged Granada into civil war at the time the Castilians were beginning their attack on the kingdom.
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). With the surrender (Jan., 1492) of the city of Granada, the Moors lost their last hold in Spain, and the kingdom was united with CastileCastile
, Span. Castilla , historic region and former kingdom, central and N Spain, traditionally divided into Old Castile and New Castile, and now divided into Castile–La Mancha and Castile-Leon.
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. The city became an archiepiscopal see and, in 1531, the seat of a university.

Granada

 

a city in southern Spain, in Andalusia, on the northwest slope of the Sierra Nevada at the confluence of the Genii and Darro rivers. Administrative center of the province of Granada. Population 170,100 (1969). Granada is a transport junction and the center of the region of irrigation agriculture in the intermontane depression called the Vega Granada. Its industry is connected with the refining of agricultural products. Liqueurs, linen and wool cloth, and carpets are produced there. Granada has cement and chemical plants. It is one of the country’s major centers of tourism, with numerous hotels and commercial institutions.

The early history of the city and the origin of the name Granada are open to dispute. Granada (Arabic, garnatha) acquired importance only in the 11th century, when it became the residence of a lateral branch of the Zirids (1012–90). During 1090–1156. Granada was in the hands of the Almoravides; it later came under the rule of the Almohades. In 1238 it became the capital of the emirate of Granada (of the Nasrid dynasty), the last Arab state on Spanish territory. In the 13th century Granada was one of the most flourishing cities of the Iberian Peninsula, a large center of silk-producing and arms-making, and a city that carried on lively trade with the Arab countries. This was aided to a significant extent by the continuous influx of Muslims from regions reconquered from the Arabs in the course of the Reconquista. In 1492, unable to withstand a prolonged siege by Castilian forces. Granada fell, and the emirate of Granada ceased to exist. After the mass deportation (1568–70, 1609–10) of the Moriscos, who were experienced silk-growers and skillful craftsmen, and the rupture of Granada’s traditional commercial ties with the East, the city gradually fell into decline. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the industrial importance of Granada revived. During the Civil War of 1936–39, Granada was a base of the fascist rebels.

The medieval center of Granada, with its crooked streets, was partially restored in the early 20th century; there is new construction to the northwest. Architectural monuments include the remains of Arab fortifications, houses in the Mudejar style, the Cathedral (1523–1703; architects, E. de Egas and others), the church of San Juan de los Reyes (c. 1520; architect. R. Hernandez) with a 13th-century bell tower, the church of Santa Ana (1537–63; architect, D. de Siloé), the Monastery of La Cartuja (16th-18th centuries), and the exchange (“Lonja,” 1518–22; architect, J. G. de Pradez). On the outskirts of the city are cave dwellings inhabited by the poor. The palace of the Casa de Castril (1539) contains a museum of fine arts and archaeology; on the eastern edge of the city are the palace buildings of the Alhambra.

REFERENCE

Schonberg, J. L. Grenade et le miracle andalou. Paris. 1957.

Granada

 

a city in southwestern Nicaragua; the administrative center of the department of Granada. Population, 40,000 (1968). It is a port on the northwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua and is linked with the capital by railroad and highway. The city is the commercial center of an agricultural region producing coffee and sugarcane. It is the site of a vegetable-oil plant (owned by a US company) and a sugar refinery. Granada was founded in 1524.

Granada

1. a former kingdom of S Spain, in Andalusia: founded in the 13th century and divided in 1833 into the present-day provinces of Granada, Almer?a, and M?laga, in Andalusia
2. a city in S Spain, in Andalusia: capital of the Moorish kingdom of Granada from 1238 to 1492 and a great commercial and cultural centre, containing the Alhambra palace (13th and 14th centuries); university (1531). Pop.: 237 663 (2003 est.)
3. a city in SW Nicaragua, on the NW shore of Lake Nicaragua: the oldest city in the country, founded in 1523 by C?rdoba; attacked frequently by pirates in the 17th century. Pop.: 95 000 (2005 est.)