Elizaveta Nikolaevna Kovalskaia
Koval’skaia, Elizaveta Nikolaevna
(nee Solntseva). Born July 17 (29), 1851 (1849 according to other data), in the village of Solntsevka, Kharkov District; died 1943. Russian revolutionary, a Narodnik (Populist).
Koval’skaia was born into a lower middle-class family. She conducted revolutionary work in Kharkov and St. Petersburg in the 1870’s. Koval’skaia was close to the Land and Liberty group, and after it split in 1879 she joined Black Repartition. In 1880, together with N. P. Shchedrin, she organized the South Russian Workers’ Union in Kiev, for which she was sentenced in 1881 to life at hard labor. She was in the Kara region from 1882 onward. Koval’skaia lived in emigration from 1903 to 1917 in Switzerland and then France, where she joined the Socialist Revolutionary (Maximalist) Party. She became a research fellow of the Petrograd Historical Revolutionary Archive in 1918 and a member of the editorial board of the journal Katorga i ssylka (Hard Labor and Exile).