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(to͞oväl`o͞o), independent Commonwealth nation (2005 est. pop. 11,600), 10 sq mi (26 sq km), composed of nine low coral atolls, formerly known as the Ellice (or Lagoon) Islands, scattered over the W Pacific Ocean. The capital is the atoll of FunafutiFunafuti
, capital and chief atoll of Tuvalu, S Pacific. It comprises 30 islets of a reef 13 mi (21 km) long, with a land area of c.1 sq mi (2.6 sq km). The islet of Fongafale is the most populous part of the atoll; the center of government is there.
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The population is primarily Polynesian and about 98% Protestant; most are members of the Church of Tuvalu, a Congregationalist denomination. Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, and Kiribati (on the island of Nui) are spoken. Subsistence farming and fishing are the mainstays of the economy, especially on the atolls (the outer islands) other than Funafuti. The smallness and remoteness of the islands hinder the development of a tourist industry. The sale of postage stamps and coins accounts for the largest portion of the country's income. Remittances from overseas workers are also important. Other substantial income is received through a trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and Great Britain and also supported by Japan and South Korea. Copra and fish are the main exports; food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, and manufactured goods are imported. The main trading partners are Germany, Fiji, Italy, Japan, and China.

Tuvalu is governed under the constitution of 1978. The monarch of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, represented by the governor-general, is the head of state. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is elected by the Parliament. Members of the 15-seat unicameral Parliament or House of Assembly (Fale I Fono) are popularly elected for four-year terms.


Capt. John Byron visited the islands in 1764 and they were administered by Britain as part of a protectorate (1892–1916) and as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony (1916–74). The colony became self-governing in 1971, and in 1974 the Ellice Islanders voted for separate British dependency status as Tuvalu. They became fully independent in 1978 and in 1979 signed a treaty of friendship with the United States, which recognized Tuvalu's possession of four small islands formerly claimed by the United States. Ionatana Ionatana, prime minister since Mar., 1999, died in Dec., 2000; the following February, Faimalaga Luka was elected to succeed him. In 2001 the government requested help from Australia and New Zealand in resettling its citizens if global warming leads to a significant rise in ocean waters; the highest point in the country is about 16 ft (5 m) above sea level. In Dec., 2001, Luka lost a confidence vote. Koloa Talake was chosen to succeed him, but he lost his seat in the elections in July, 2002. Saufatu Sopoanga became prime minister the following month. Sopoanga lost a confidence vote two years later, and in Oct., 2004, Maatia Toafa succeeded him. Following the Aug., 2006, parliamentary elections, in which all members of the government except Toafa lost their seats, Apisai Ielemia became prime minister. Toafa again became prime minister following the Sept., 2010, elections, but his government lost a confidence vote in December; Willy Telavi was elected to succeed him. In Aug., 2013, Telavi was ousted, and Enele Sopoaga became prime minister. A tropical cyclone in Mar., 2015, caused significant damage to many of the country's atolls.



(until 1975, Ellice Islands), a state consisting of a group of atolls in the western Pacific Ocean, in Polynesia. Area, 24 sq km. Population, about 10,000 (1979). Tuvalu consists of nine low-lying coral atolls that extend for more than 600 km. The islands, which have coconut-palm and banana plantations, export copra. The capital is the city of Funafuti.


Official name: Tuvalu

Capital city: Funafuti

Internet country code: .tv

Flag description: Light blue with the flag of the United Kingdom in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yel­low five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

Geographical description: Oceania, island group consist­ing of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Total area: 10 sq. mi. (26 sq. km.)

Climate: Tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Nationality: noun: Tuvaluan(s); adjective: Tuvaluan

Population: 11,992 (July 2007 CIA est.)

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%

Languages spoken: Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)

Religions: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Sev­enth-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha’i 1%, other 0.6%

Legal Holidays:

Boxing DayDec 26
Christmas DayDec 25
Good Friday - Easter MondayApr 22, 2011; Apr 6, 2012; Mar 29, 2013; Apr 18, 2014; Apr 3, 2015; Mar 25, 2016; Apr 14, 2017; Mar 30, 2018; Apr 19, 2019; Apr 10, 2020; Apr 2, 2021; Apr 15, 2022; Apr 7, 2023
New Year's DayJan 1


a country in the SW Pacific, comprising a group of nine coral islands: established as a British protectorate in 1892. From 1915 until 1975 the islands formed part of the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands; achieved full independence in 1978; a member of the Commonwealth (formerly a special member not represented at all meetings, until 2000). Languages: English and Tuvaluan. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: Australian dollar; Tuvalu dollars are also used. Capital: Funafuti. Pop.: 11 000 (2003 est.). Area: 26 sq. km (10 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
2 include the terrain west of Middle Channel, northern Langley Island, the central northern portions of Ellice Island, the large island to the north of Ellice Island, and isolated patches within the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary (Fig.
Synthetic Aperture Radar data confirmed that significant portions of Langley and Ellice Islands were inundated on September 25 and 26 (Solomon et al.
Location (2) Year % Correctly identified Distance from by Landsat (N) Fish Island area (km) Fish Island 1991 100 (13/13) 0 Taglu area 1992 83 (15/18) 0 Camp Farewell area 1992 54 (13/24) 10 Niglintgak Island 1991 85 (11/13) 15 North Ellice Island 1992 20 (2/10) 30 (1) Habitat types are defined in Table 3.
Northern Ellice Island was the most coastal of all areas censused, and consisted entirely of low-lying sites, with no upland tundra.
On their island of origin, the Banabans had to make significant adjustments to their ethnic identity with the onset of phosphate mining and Banaba's incorporation into the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony.
Bevington worked for HM Overseas Service for twenty-six years between 1937 and 1963, originally in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands.
Tuvalu is contemplating legal action against major polluters, and also against Britain over the division of the assets of the old Gilbert and Ellice Islands at the time of independence.
IT'S surprising that Coventry hasn't made more of its link with the Ellice Islands, a small group of coral atolls in the Pacific Ocean to the north of Fiji (Any Questions, July 5).
Short of Cheveral Avenue, Radford asks: Is it true there's a connection between Coventry and the Ellice Islands in the South Pacific?
In an effort to restore a measure of order, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (the Ellice Islands are now the independent country of Tuvalu) consented to becoming British protectorates in 1892.
The Western Pacific nation of Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is situated 4,000 kilometer (2,486 mi.