In embiotocids, the spermatozoa come together to form large aggregates called spermatozeugmata, which are not enclosed by a membrane (Ginzburg 1968; Wourms 1981; Grier et al.
Spermatocytes were staged according to previously published literature on embiotocids and other fishes (Gardiner 1978; Grier 1981; Schulz et al.
Although it is not clear which resources may be valued, other embiotocids have been shown to establish territories for food and mating sites (Hixon 1981).
In the closely related shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) and other embiotocids (Hubbs, 1917; Shaw & Allen, 1977; Hixon, 1981), only males are involved in agonistic chasing and displays and only males engage in the aforementioned quivering during courtship, so these behaviors were used to identify males when the gonopodium could not be seen.
However, partial abortions may occur in embiotocids (Schultz, 1993) presenting the possibility of underestimating brood size.
The mean brood size of pink seaperch is similar to that of other deep water fishes (Koslow et al., 2000) but is considered relatively small compared to other embiotocids (reviewed in Baltz, 1984).
Developing comparative otolith collections for particularly common species would be a starting point and the results for embiotocids
in this study provide some grounds for optimism in future studies of archaeological sites in coastal California.