Edinburgh(redirected from Embra)
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Points of Interest
Edinburgh's history may be said to have begun when Malcolm III of Scotland erected a castle there in the late 11th cent. and his wife built the Chapel of St. Margaret, the city's oldest surviving building. A town grew up around the castle and was chartered in 1329 by Robert I. It grew steadily despite repeated sacking and burning by the English in the border wars and became the capital city of Scotland in 1437.
James IV was the first monarch to make Edinburgh his regular seat. The rooms of Mary Queen of Scots are preserved in Holyrood Palace. The city lost importance when James VI became king of England in 1603 and commerce and society followed the court to London. After the Act of Union with England in 1707 dissolved the Scottish Parliament, Edinburgh retained the Supreme Courts of Law, which now meet in the old Parliament House.
Edinburgh blossomed as a cultural center in the 18th and 19th cent. around the figures of the philosophers David Hume and Adam Smith and the writers Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott. The Edinburgh Review, founded in 1802, added to the city's literary reputation. Following voter approval and parliamentary passage of a devolution act, the Scottish Parliament met for the first time in nearly 300 years in Edinburgh in 1999. The new parliament building was completed in 2004.
See R. Crawford, On Glasgow and Edinburgh (2013).
a city and royal burgh in Great Britain; capital of Scotland and center of the province of Lothian. Population, 543,000 (1971). Edinburgh is situated near the Firth of Forth, an inlet of the North Sea; the port of Leith on the shore of the firth is within the city limits. Edinburgh is a transportation junction and an industrial center, as well as an important cultural center. It has enterprises of the printing, paper, pharmaceutical, and food-processing industries. Machinery is also produced, including electrical equipment and machinery for the paper industry. The city is the home of the Royal Scottish Academy, and it has a university.
The first written information about Edinburgh dates from the sixth century. Edinburgh probably received the rights of a city in the 12th century. It became the capital of Scotland in the mid-15th century. From the 13th to the 17th centuries it was repeatedly occupied by English troops, which caused considerable destruction. The city’s importance as a political and administrative center declined in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the union of Scotland and England. During the industrial revolution, which began in the mid-18th century, the city’s commercial, industrial, and financial role increased. In the 1830’s a trade union council was founded in Edinburgh and the Chartist movement spread.
Edinburgh, one of Europe’s most beautiful cities, is known as the Athens of the North. It is situated on several hills and has narrow, winding streets lined with towerlike houses, up to 12 stories high, of coarse stone. The new part has a regular layout (plan of 1767–68, architect J. Craig) with beautifully integrated architecture in the classical style. Notable structures include the former royal castle (11th–16th centuries) and Holyrood Palace, residence of the Scottish kings (begun 1128). Also of interest are the city’s 16th-century houses, classical-style buildings and architectural complexes, including Charlotte Square (1792–1807, architect R. Adam and others), and neo-Gothic structures. The Turn-house air terminal was built in 1955 by R. Matthew. Museums include the Royal Scottish Museum, the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, and the National Gallery of Scotland.