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Edinburgh (ĕdˈĭnbərə), city (2021 pop. 542,599) and council area, royal burgh, capital of Scotland, on the Firth of Forth. Leith, part of the city since 1920, is Edinburgh's port. The city is famous in Scottish legend and literature as Dunedin or “Auld Reekie.” It is divided into two sections. The Old Town, on the slope of Castle Rock, dates from the 11th cent. and contains most of the city's historic sites; the New Town spread to the north in the late 18th cent.


Edinburgh is Scotland's administrative, financial, legal, medical, and insurance center, and the city has become an important nuclear and electronics research center. The port imports grain, fertilizer, petroleum, minerals, wood pulp, cement, fruit, and vegetables. Edinburgh is a large brewing center, has a thriving publishing industry, and produces great quantities of high-grade paper. There are metalworks and rubber and engineering works. Other industries are distilling; the manufacture of glassware, drugs, and chemicals; and shipbuilding. The Waverly railway station is the second largest in Great Britain. Tourism is of major importance.

Points of Interest

The Edinburgh International Festival of Music and Drama, held every summer since 1947, and its larger, more eclectic and offbeat offshoot, the Edinburgh Fringe, are world famous; the festival's 1,900-seat theater opened in 1994. Other notable features are the new Parliament Building; National War Memorial; the collections of the Royal Scottish Academy, the National Gallery of Scotland, the Royal Scottish Museum, and the Museum of Scotland; the National Library; Princes St.; the Royal Botanic Gardens; the house of the Protestant reformer John Knox; the church of St. Giles, dating from the 12th cent.; the Real Mary King's Close, narrow streets and buildings that were buried underground in the 18th cent.; and the site of the famous prison, Old Tolbooth, which figures in Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian. The Univ. of Edinburgh was founded under James VI in 1583; other institutions of higher education include Heriot-Watt Univ. and Napier Univ.


Edinburgh's history may be said to have begun when Malcolm III of Scotland erected a castle there in the late 11th cent. and his wife built the Chapel of St. Margaret, the city's oldest surviving building. A town grew up around the castle and was chartered in 1329 by Robert I. It grew steadily despite repeated sacking and burning by the English in the border wars and became the capital city of Scotland in 1437.

James IV was the first monarch to make Edinburgh his regular seat. The rooms of Mary Queen of Scots are preserved in Holyrood Palace. The city lost importance when James VI became king of England in 1603 and commerce and society followed the court to London. After the Act of Union with England in 1707 dissolved the Scottish Parliament, Edinburgh retained the Supreme Courts of Law, which now meet in the old Parliament House.

Edinburgh blossomed as a cultural center in the 18th and 19th cent. around the figures of the philosophers David Hume and Adam Smith and the writers Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott. The Edinburgh Review, founded in 1802, added to the city's literary reputation. Following voter approval and parliamentary passage of a devolution act, the Scottish Parliament met for the first time in nearly 300 years in Edinburgh in 1999. The new parliament building was completed in 2004.


See R. Crawford, On Glasgow and Edinburgh (2013).


Edinburgh, Town (2020 pop. 4618), Bartholomew, Johnson, and Shelby cos; S central Ind; est. c. 1823. The town is a suburb of Columbus, In., near the juncture of the Big Blue River and Sugar Creek which, 1 mile west of town, form the Driftwood River. It is the home of the National Guard's Camp Atterbury. A serious tornado and floods damaged the area in 2008.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city and royal burgh in Great Britain; capital of Scotland and center of the province of Lothian. Population, 543,000 (1971). Edinburgh is situated near the Firth of Forth, an inlet of the North Sea; the port of Leith on the shore of the firth is within the city limits. Edinburgh is a transportation junction and an industrial center, as well as an important cultural center. It has enterprises of the printing, paper, pharmaceutical, and food-processing industries. Machinery is also produced, including electrical equipment and machinery for the paper industry. The city is the home of the Royal Scottish Academy, and it has a university.

The first written information about Edinburgh dates from the sixth century. Edinburgh probably received the rights of a city in the 12th century. It became the capital of Scotland in the mid-15th century. From the 13th to the 17th centuries it was repeatedly occupied by English troops, which caused considerable destruction. The city’s importance as a political and administrative center declined in the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the union of Scotland and England. During the industrial revolution, which began in the mid-18th century, the city’s commercial, industrial, and financial role increased. In the 1830’s a trade union council was founded in Edinburgh and the Chartist movement spread.

Edinburgh, one of Europe’s most beautiful cities, is known as the Athens of the North. It is situated on several hills and has narrow, winding streets lined with towerlike houses, up to 12 stories high, of coarse stone. The new part has a regular layout (plan of 1767–68, architect J. Craig) with beautifully integrated architecture in the classical style. Notable structures include the former royal castle (11th–16th centuries) and Holyrood Palace, residence of the Scottish kings (begun 1128). Also of interest are the city’s 16th-century houses, classical-style buildings and architectural complexes, including Charlotte Square (1792–1807, architect R. Adam and others), and neo-Gothic structures. The Turn-house air terminal was built in 1955 by R. Matthew. Museums include the Royal Scottish Museum, the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, and the National Gallery of Scotland.


Voronikhina, L. N. Edinburg. Leningrad, 1974.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Duke of, title of Prince Philip Mountbatten. born 1921, husband of Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


1. the capital of Scotland and seat of the Scottish Parliament (from 1999), in City of Edinburgh council area on the S side of the Firth of Forth: became the capital in the 15th century; castle; three universities (including University of Edinburgh,1583); commercial and cultural centre, noted for its annual festival. Pop.: 430 082 (2001)
2. City of. a council area in central Scotland, created from part of Lothian region in 1996. Pop.: 448 370 (2003 est.). Area: 262 sq. km (101 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Simulators such as MemSpy, Fast-Cache, and Embra reduce the cost of processing cache hits, but because they are based on code annotation or emulation, they always add a minimal base overhead to the execution of every memory operation.
Swansea Jack landed a gamble in the 6f handicap when the Stuart Williams-trained threeyear-old, sent off the 11-4 favourite having been 11-1 in the morning, got up to deny Ayam Zainah, while Embra took the last for Tim Etherington under one-time jump jockey Robert Lucey Butler.
TODAY'S SARABAND SELECTIONS: AYR: 1.40 Balierus, 2.10 Newbury Street, 2.45 Nacho Libre, 3.20 Stellite, 3.55 Emirates Champion, 4.30 Ingleby Princess, 5.00 Mazzola, 5.30 Embra.
It follows news that Birkenhead Market owner Larry Embra plans to redevelop land off Europa Boulevard with a pounds 25m scheme to build a hotel, casino and office space near Conway Park Station.
AS A KEELIE with more than half-acentury of observing the difference, I've always known the gap between the Dear Green Place and Embra was wider than the geographical 44 miles.
HER acting debut was event TV, but Her Maj The Queen and Chookie Embra would probably rather have watched it on the telly themselves.
TOMORROW'S TIPS ASCOT: 2.00 Apace, 2.35 L Frank Baum, 3.10 Deacon Blues, 3.45 MUDAARAAH (NAP), 4.20 Bramshaw, 4.55 Striking Force HAYDOCK: 2.10 Lady Paris, 2.45 New Latin, 3.20 Black Annis Bower, 3.55 Mark Twain, 4.30 Leviathan, 5.05 Dream Of Olwyn WOLVERHAMPTON: 5.45 Embra, 6.15 Angelo Poliziano, 6.45 Quinsman, 7.15 Norman Orpen, 7.45 Fire Fighter, 8.15 Tasfeya, 8.45 Qaraqum, 9.15 Key Breeze WORCESTER: 2.20 Tae Kwon Do, 2.55 Indian Pipe Dream, 3.30 Gambo, 4.05 Moulin De La Croix, 4.40 Caheerloch, 5.15 Cullahill, 5.50 Kilcommon Pride DOUBLE: Mudaaraah and Leviathan
NAOMI MATTHEW: 1.40 Balierus, 2.10 Newbury Street, 2.45 Nacho Libre, 3.20 Stellite, 3.55 Emirates Champion, 4.30 Ingleby Princess, 5.00 Mazzola, 5.30 Embra DONCASTER: GAZETTE BET: 3.30 Russian Spirit.
DONCASTER: 2.20 Peter's Gift, 2.50 Silvanus, 3.25 Mister Green, 4.00 Shake On It, 4.35 Embra, 5.05 Flower, 5.35 My Learned Friend.
It is being backed by the owner of Birkenhead Market, Larry Embra, who hopes the scheme will also give the market a boost by attracting new customers.
Perhaps Derek Riordan should give thanks that things have changed in Embra since that long-ago era.
Fictional folk, like gap-toothed drunk Englebert Humfyirdrink and busty barmaid Mona Lang, mixed with real-life notables such as the Queen and the Chooky Embra (Prince Philip).