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see birth controlbirth control,
practice of contraception for the purpose of limiting reproduction. Methods of Birth Control

Male birth control methods include withdrawal of the male before ejaculation (the oldest contraceptive technique) and use of the condom, a rubber sheath
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



methods and agents for preventing pregnancy; contraception may be physiological or artificial.

There are days of “physiological sterility” during each menstrual cycle: in a 21-day cycle these are days one and 15–21; in a 28-day cycle, days one to six and 22–28; and so on for other cycles. However, contraception based on these physiological characteristics is not entirely dependable, since the periods of ovulation may vary. Temporary sterility (inability to conceive) also occurs in many women during breast-feeding, particularly during the first postpartum months.

Artificial contraception includes the use of mechanical, chemical, biological, or surgical agents and methods or a combination of them. Contraception has a great social impact as a principal method for the prophylaxis of abortion, for family planning, and for regulation of population growth in individual countries.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Prevention of impregnation.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
(2005), "Advanced Provision of Emergency Contraception to Postnatal Women in China Makes No Difference in Abortion Rates: A Randomized Controlled Trial," Contraception 72: 111-6.
Emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy up to 120 hours after unprotected sex or contraception failure.
The AAP also encouraged pediatricians and doctors to counsel teen patients on the effects of emergency contraception as well as other forms of contraception "regardless of age." The purpose of the statement was to highlight the importance of the time frame for emergency contraception and its effectiveness when taken within one day of unprotected sex.
In 1996, it announced that the use of available birth control pills as emergency contraception was safe and effective, and that this information should be included in the packaging--even though no drug company had asked it to do so.
Randomised controlled trial of levonorgestrel versus the Yuzpe regimen of combined oral contraceptives for emergency contraception. Lancet.
Many indicated that irresponsible behavior led to the need for emergency contraception and expressed punitive attitudes.
Studies on the mechanism of action of emergency contraception show that it works primarily by interfering with ovulation.
The researchers studied the effect of advance provision of emergency contraception on rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as on sexual behaviour and contraceptive use.
Emergency contraception must be used appropriately and rationally.
Five Web sites incorrectly stated that the calendar/rhythm method is effective at preventing pregnancy, and three mis-stated the effectiveness of emergency contraception.
* 15 states and the District of Columbia require emergency rooms to provide information about emergency contraception.
The second part included 34 multiple choice questions on the knowledge and attitudes towards emergency contraception (EC).

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