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(āmēgrā`), in French history, a refugee, usually royalist, who fled the French Revolution and took up residence in a foreign land. The émigrés comprised all classes, but were disproportionately drawn from the privileged. Immediately after the fall of the Bastille (1789), the exodus of the princes of the blood began, and successive waves of emigration took place after that date. King Louis XVILouis XVI,
1754–93, king of France (1774–92), third son of the dauphin (Louis) and Marie Josèphe of Saxony, grandson and successor of King Louis XV. In 1770 he married the Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette.
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 himself tried to flee (1791) France but was arrested at Varennes. Many of the émigrés gathered about Prince Louis Joseph de Condé (see under CondéCondé
, family name of a cadet branch of the French royal house of Bourbon. The name was first borne by Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, 1530–69, Protestant leader and general.
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, family) and the king's brother, the comte d'Artois (later King Charles XCharles X,
1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI.
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), to form a counterrevolutionary army to restore the old regime. In Oct., 1792, the Convention, a Revolutionary national assembly, decreed the confiscation of their property and their perpetual banishment. After 1802, Napoleon permitted the émigrés to return to France, with restrictions. Many rose to power in the empire. With the restoration of the monarchy (1814) the rest of them returned and became a powerful reactionary group opposing the moderate policies of King Louis XVIIILouis XVIII,
1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVI. Known as the comte de Provence, he fled (1791) to Koblenz from the French Revolution and intrigued to bring about foreign intervention against the revolutionaries.
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. The comte d'Artois favored them, and when he ascended the throne (1824) a law was passed indemnifying the nobility for their confiscated estates. This pro-émigré (or, more properly, ultraroyalist) legislation helped to bring about the July Revolution of 1830 against Charles X. The term émigré has subsequently been applied to refugees from any revolution.


See D. Greer, The Incidence of the Emigration during the French Revolution (1951, repr. 1966), M. Weiner, The French Exiles, 1789–1815 (1960).


a person living in enforced exile from his or her native country



a citizen who voluntarily or under compulsion leaves his own country for political, economic, religious, or other reasons to settle in another country.

Emigration does not automatically entail the loss of one’s citizenship; this question is resolved according to the legislation of the émigré’s country of citizenship. Emigrés who have lost their citizenship and have not acquired a new citizenship become stateless persons. Political émigrés generally enjoy the right of asylum. States may permit citizenship to be restored, on easier terms than would otherwise be the case, to émigrés who have lost it. The procedure by which an émigré obtains citizenship in his country of residence is determined by its code of laws.

In capitalist countries in the imperialist period emigration has become widespread among the working people, many of whom have been forced to leave their motherland in search of work. Emigres in this category are placed in a particularly difficult situation: they do not possess all the rights of the citizens of the state in which they live, and they perform, as a rule, especially hard work, for which they receive lower wages than do citizens. They live in worse housing, and many of the social insurance laws and unemployment benefits do not apply to them. The elimination of discrimination against immigrant workers is an important demand of the Communist parties of the capitalist countries.

References in periodicals archive ?
Fawzil, un licencie en droit, est plein de reves, et pour les realiser, il emigre clandestinement en France oE il sera confronte a une dure realite.
The shopping centre is owned by Shi'ite Lebanese emigre Ass'ad Ahmad Barakat and blacklisted by the US and other states as an alleged Hizbullah agent.
Discounting newer approaches in the field of exile studies, Crawford barely focuses on the Americanization of musical emigres, and their gradual change from refugee to immigrant, even though most of them, unlike many emigre writers, grew roots in their adopted home country and decided not to return to Europe after the war.
Hollywood had a fascination with Freud and psychology at this time, a fascination that played to the strengths of the European emigres and was intrinsic to film noir.
This disparity and the issues of identity inherent in its causes, both in regard to the secular or assimilationist desires of the emigres and the populist, anticonservative politics of the Mexican artists, reinforces the importance of this document.
Cuba had earlier accused the United States of issuing too few visas for Cuban emigres, alleging the delay was part of Washington's efforts to overthrow the Cuban government.
An exporter of human capital, Lebanon nevertheless continued to be a magnet for its own emigres (mughtaribeen) who often returned to Lebanon, bringing back transnational wealth as well as a wealth of transnational ideas.
Many emigres live hundreds of miles from polling and registration stations, which will require an in-person appearance to both vote and register.
Most Canadian provinces have specific programs allowing emigres to apply for a provincial nomination, You must show proof of a job or enough money to cover living expenses for a six-month period.
Signe de reconnaissance indiscutable, vient de paraitre un Dictionnaire des ecrivains emigres au Quebec.
Many Billancourt emigres worked in the Renault factory; deemed unfit for such work, women were not allowed to immigrate in numbers.