Émile Combes

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Combes, Émile


Born Sept. 6, 1835, in Roquecourbe; died May 25, 1921, in Pons. French statesman. The son of a craftsman.

Combes defended doctoral dissertations in theology (1860) and medicine (1866). In 1885 he became a senator and joined the Radical group. In 1894–95 he was vice-president of the Senate; from November 1895 to April 1896 he was minister of education. In the 1890’s, a period of sharp struggle between democracy and reaction centered on the Dreyfus Affair, Combes came out for a review of the case, a stand that was a defense of the republican system. From June 1902 to January 1905, Combes was head of the government. The Combes government carried out several anticlerical measures: it closed a number of Catholic churches, suppressed schools directed by a religious congregation, and prepared a bill for the separation of church and state. (The latter was implemented in late 1905.) This anticlerical policy led to a break in diplomatic relations between the Vatican and France (1904). Under pressure from right-wing bourgeois circles, Combes was forced to resign. In 1915–16 he was minister without portfolio.

References in periodicals archive ?
Location of works, place of delivery supplies or performance: 26 rue Emile Combes 33270 Floirac
Even so, the greatest victim of the Dreyfus affair was the Catholic Church which, after the 1902 election of the Freemason, Emile Combes, as prime minister, suffered a dissolution eerily similar to Henry VIII's English reformation.
However, events were to overtake Ireland in the Vatican, at home, and, most importantly, in France where the church and state were to end up at loggerheads, due in no small part to the machinations of the radical secularism of Emile Combes.
Lycee Emile Combes Pons - intellectual services for the work of the 5th installment of the restructuring of the institution.
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Contract award: Additional contracts related to construction of a multipurpose hall in college Emile Combes Pons
Contract notice: Construction of school emile combes argeles sur mer