Emmanuel Mounier


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Mounier, Emmanuel

 

Born Apr. 1, 1905, in Grenoble; died Mar. 22, 1950, in Châtenay-Malabry, near Paris. French idealist philosopher.

The founder and head of the French school of personalism, Mounier organized and supervised its theoretical organ, the journal Esprit (founded in 1932). His philosophy, which is based on a recognition of the absolute value of the person, draws a sharp distinction between the concept of the person and that of the individual. According to Mounier, the individual is the isolated human “self,” the human being shut up within himself and submerged in his own inner world. The person is the highest spiritual entity, which is in a continual state of creative self-realization. In self-realization, the person negates his self-sufficiency and imperviousness and strives for the transcendent.

In general, Mounier’s personalism is a version of Catholic modernism. Although Mounier agreed with the existentialist theory of commitment, he did not believe that the person was “cast” into a world to which he was hostile. Rather, he suggested that the person inserted himself into the world in a rational way and transformed the world to conform to his moral and political aspirations.

Mounier’s personalism also posited concrete sociopolitical tasks: a struggle against capitalism and colonialism, opposition to fascism, and support of peace. Mounier viewed moral regeneration as the path to human liberation. Although he criticized capitalism from the standpoint of Christian socialism, he called for “overcoming” Marxism. In opposition to the doctrine of the class struggle and socialist revolution he proposed “a personalist and communal spiritual revolution.”

WORKS

Manifeste au service du personnalisme. Paris, 1936.
Qu’est-ce que Le Personnalisme? Paris, 1947.
Oeuvres, 4 vols. Paris, 1961–63.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, V. N. Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia 20 v. Moscow, 1970. Pages 211–22.
[“Emmanuel Mounier.”] Esprit, 1950, no. 12 (174).
Mounier et sa génération. Paris, 1956.
Moix, C. La Pensée d’Emmanuel Mounier. Paris, 1960.
Cuissard, L. E. Mounier. Paris, 1963.
Conilh, J. Emmanuel Mounier. Sa Vie, son oeuvre. (With an exposition of his philosophy.) Paris, 1966.
Pluzanski, T. Mounier. Warsaw, 1967.
Domenach, J.-M. Emmanuel Mounier. Paris, 1972.

T. A. SAKHAROVA

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
In the early 1930s, Berdyaev and several of the journal's other authors, who had already influenced French Catholic intellectuals such as Jacques Maritain (whose Meudon gatherings Berdyaev frequented), shared a common vision with the burgeoning generation of Non-Conformist intellectuals such as Emmanuel Mounier, founder of the literary magazine Esprit.
4) Personalism (Ferdinand Ebner, Emmanuel Mounier, and Maurice-Gustave Nedoncelle); (ch.
Another important figure to whom Kahan draws attention is the French personalist Emmanuel Mounier.
Emmanuel Mounier, President and CEO of Morpho Detection International, Inc, the international sales and service division of Morpho Detection, commented: "By dramatically reducing false alarms and the need for costly, time-intensive manual bag inspections, the System of Systems is another example of Morpho Detection's commitment to developing the most advanced technologies to help airports around the world increase efficiency while addressing constantly evolving security challenges.
Meunier presente Emmanuel Mounier comme le penseur typique des annees 1930 a 1945 (p.
He supports his argument through readings of handful of interwar French intellectuals including Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, brother of the famous marine biologist and author of Jewish America; Georges Duhamel, author of America the Menace (whose French title translates as "Scene from Life in the Future"); Emmanuel Mounier, the founder of the journal Esprit whose anti-Americanism remained intact through shifting political ideals; and novelist George Bernanos, who similarly maintained his anti-Americanism through shifting political beliefs and associations.
Day and Maurin read voraciously, and the Zwicks deftly show how their views on personalism, the common good, distributism, anarchism, the works of mercy, pacifism, and the connection between liturgy and social justice were thoughtfully drawn from the likes of Virgil Michel, Nicholas Berdyaev, Emmanuel Mounier, Francis of Assisi, Jacques and Raissa Maritain, Teresa of Avila, Catherine of Siena, Dostoevsky, and Therese of Lisieux.
From the nonconformist currents affected in the Christian "personalism" espoused by the Roman Catholic Emmanuel Mounier in the France of the 1930s, to British Blairism in the 2000s, Bulgakov's work--influenced as much by Marx as by de Toqueville and Weber--really does manage to find a favourable reception.
A perfectly bilingual man torn between his French paternal and Scottish maternal lineages, Trudeau was deeply influenced both by Harold Laski's Fabianism and the personalism of Jacques Maritain and Emmanuel Mounier.
The term "philosopher king" was often applied to Trudeau, but I did not mean it to be taken seriously; he did, however, refer to Plato from time to time, and when he was in France he came under the influence of a Catholic philosopher, Emmanuel Mounier.
It was this leftward tilt, inspired particularly by the French personalist philosopher Emmanuel Mounier,(24) that spawned a Quebec social-democratic political tradition in its attempt to incorporate elements of the Marxist critique into Christianity.
The Chelsea set, a vibrantly orthodox Catholic salon to which Dawson belonged, centered their thought around the Neo-Thomism of Gilson and Maritain, the literature of Fumet and Julian Green, as well as the social thought of Emmanuel Mounier.