# Emmy Noether

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## Noether, Emmy

(Amalie Emmy Noether) (ämäl`yə ĕm`ē nö`tər), 1882–1935, German mathematician, b. Erlangen, Germany, grad. Univ. of Erlangen (Ph.D. 1908). She made important contributions to the development of abstract algebra, which studies the formal properties, e.g., associative lawassociative law,
in mathematics, law holding that for a given operation combining three quantities, two at a time, the initial pairing is arbitrary; e.g., using the operation of addition, the numbers 2, 3, and 4 may be combined (2+3)+4=5+4=9 or 2+(3+4)=2+7=9.
, commutative lawcommutative law,
in mathematics, law holding that for a given binary operation (combining two quantities) the order of the quantities is arbitrary; e.g., in addition, the numbers 2 and 5 can be combined as 2+5=7 or as 5+2=7.
, and distributive lawdistributive law.
In mathematics, given any two operations, symbolized by * and +, the first operation, *, is distributive over the second, +, if a*(b+c)=(a*b)+(a*c) for all possible choices of a, b, and c.
, of algebraic operations. In 1915 she joined David HilbertHilbert, David,
1862–1943, German mathematician, professor at Königsberg (1886–95) and Göttingen (1895–1930), b. Königsberg, Germany. His proof of the theorum of invariants (1890) supplanted earlier computational work on the subject and paved the
and C. F. KleinKlein, Christian Felix
, 1849–1925, German mathematician. He is noted for his work in geometry and on the theory of functions. His Erlangen program (1872) for unifying the diverse forms of geometry through the study of equivalence in transformation groups was influential,
at Göttingen Univ. at their invitation, and finally secured an official appointment there in 1919 (although without a salary until after 1922). At Göttingen, Noether developed the theories of ideals and of noncommutative algebras; she also proved two theorems concerning the connection between symmetries and conservation laws, the first of which has been particularly important to the development of modern physics. When the Nazis dismissed her and other Jewish professors in 1933, she immigrated to the United States, briefly teaching at Bryn Mawr College and at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, before she died.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Noether, Emmy

Born Mar. 23, 1882, in Erlangen; died Apr. 14, 1935, in Bryn Mawr, USA. German mathematician.

From 1922 to 1933, Noether lectured at the University of Göttingen. Her work in algebra facilitated the creation of a new branch of mathematics known as general, or abstract, algebra (the general theory of rings, fields, and ideals); Noether’s name is associated with a fundamental theorem of theoretical physics that links conservation laws with the symmetries of a system (see). In 1928–29 she lectured on algebra at Moscow University.

### REFERENCES

Aleksandrov, P. S. “Pamiati Emmi Neter.” Uspekhi matematicheskikh
nauk, 1936, issue 2.
Van der Waerden, B. L. “Nachruf auf Emmy Noether.” Mathematische
Annalen, 1935, vol. 111. (Contains a list of works by Noether.)