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(computer science)
A combination of keyboard characters that depicts a sideways face whose expression conveys an emotional response. Also known as smiley.


/ee-moh'ti-kon/ An ASCII glyph used to indicate an emotional state in electronic mail or news. Although originally intended mostly as jokes, emoticons (or some other explicit humour indication) are virtually required under certain circumstances in high-volume text-only communication forums such as Usenet; the lack of verbal and visual cues can otherwise cause what were intended to be humorous, sarcastic, ironic, or otherwise non-100%-serious comments to be badly misinterpreted (not always even by newbies), resulting in arguments and flame wars.

Hundreds of emoticons have been proposed, but only a few are in common use. These include:

:-) "smiley face" (for humour, laughter, friendliness, occasionally sarcasm)

:-( "frowney face" (for sadness, anger, or upset)

;-) "half-smiley" (ha ha only serious); also known as "semi-smiley" or "winkey face".

:-/ "wry face"

These may become more comprehensible if you tilt your head sideways, to the left. The first two are by far the most frequently encountered. Hyphenless forms of them are common on CompuServe, GEnie, and BIX; see also bixie. On Usenet, "smiley" is often used as a generic term synonymous with emoticon, as well as specifically for the happy-face emoticon.

The emoticon was invented by one Scott Fahlman on the CMU bboard systems on 1982-09-19. He later wrote: "I wish I had saved the original post, or at least recorded the date for posterity, but I had no idea that I was starting something that would soon pollute all the world's communication channels." GLS confirms that he remembers this original posting, which has subsequently been retrieved from a backup.

As with exclamation marks, overuse of the smiley is a mark of loserhood! More than one per paragraph is a fairly sure sign that you've gone over the line.


(EMOTional ICON) A pictorial expression of feeling in a message rendered as text or an icon. Carnegie Mellon professor Scott Fahlman is credited with creating the "smiley" using the text characters :-) in an online message in 1982 (the first emoticon).

Pronounced "e-mo-tih-con," the symbols are stored in the Unicode character set. Word processing, e-mail and other character-based programs may automatically convert emoticon text into an icon, especially the smiley. In addition, applications may include a palette of emoticons to choose from. See emoji, emotag, Unicode and alphanumerish.

A Smiley Menu
In the Eudora e-mail program, users have a variety of smiley emoticons to choose from on the menu.

Emoticon   Meaning

  :-)     smiley, happy face

  :-(     frown

  ;-)     wink

  :-D     big smile

  :-O     mouth open in amazement

  :-Q     tongue hanging out in nausea

  :-{)    moustache

  :-{)}   moustache and beard

  8-)     wears glasses

  (-:     left handed or Australian

  :*)     red nosed, suggesting inebriation

A Smiley Menu
In the Eudora e-mail program, users have a variety of smiley emoticons to choose from on the menu.
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The book includes a glossary of high-tech terms, text message shortcuts and emoticons, and resources.
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