Hadrian

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Hadrian

(hā`drēən), A.D. 76–138, Roman emperor (117–138), b. Spain. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of TrajanTrajan
(Marcus Ulpius Trajanus) , c.A.D. 53–A.D. 117, Roman emperor (A.D. 98–A.D. 117). Born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in A.D.
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. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander (especially in DaciaDacia
, ancient name of the European region corresponding roughly to modern Romania (including Transylvania). It was inhabited before the Christian era by a people who were called Getae by the Greeks and were called Daci by the Romans.
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) and as an administrator. Trajan's choice of Hadrian as his successor, announced after his death, caused some discontent in Rome. His reign was vigorous and judicious, and he ruled over a prosperous and relatively peaceful era. Hadrian proved his military skill in pacifying (118) MoesiaMoesia
, ancient region of SE Europe, south of the lower Danube River. Inhabited by Thracians, it was captured by the Romans in 29 B.C. It was later organized as a Roman province, comprising roughly what is now Serbia (Upper Moesia) and Bulgaria (Lower Moesia).
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. Abandoning Trajan's aggressively expansionist policy in Asia, he withdrew to the boundary of the Euphrates. In Palestine, however, he proved himself ruthless. His Romanizing policy aroused opposition there, especially when he excluded the Jews from Jerusalem. He put down (A.D. 132) the insurrection of Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,
or Simon Bar Cochba
[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132–135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title.
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 with great severity; the ensuing war (132–135) was the most difficult of his reign. In Rome he was generous in offering circuses and in giving alms to the poor, and he enlarged and reformed the civil service.

Hadrian traveled extensively in the empire, interesting himself in all the local affairs of state and adorning the provincial cities. In Germany he built great protective walls, and in Britain (where he had visited c.121) he had Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
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 constructed. He built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of the ruined Temple at Jerusalem and renamed Jerusalem Colonia Aelia Capitolina. He also built the Arch of Hadrian in Athens, and in Rome he rebuilt the Pantheon, added to the Roman Forum, and erected a mausoleum (now Castel Sant'Angelo). His last years were spent more or less quietly in Rome and in his villa at Tibur (which has been excavated), cultivating the arts. He was learned in Greek and accomplished in poetry and music. Hadrian also patronized artists, and his love for the doomed young AntinoüsAntinoüs
, c.110–130, favorite of Emperor Hadrian, b. Bithynia. He was with the emperor constantly until on a journey in Egypt he was drowned in the Nile—some say in saving Hadrian's life.
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 was memorialized by sculptors and architects. As his successor he chose Antoninus PiusAntoninus Pius
(Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) , A.D. 86–A.D. 161, Roman emperor (138–161). After a term as consul (120) he went as proconsul to Asia, where he governed with distinction.
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.

Bibliography

See S. Perowine, Hadrian (1987); M. T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the City of Rome (1989); A Everitt, Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome (2009).


Hadrian.

For popes of that name, use Adrian.

Hadrian

, Adrian
Latin name Publius Aelius Hadrianus. 76--138 ad, Roman emperor (117--138); adopted son and successor of Trajan. He travelled throughout the Roman Empire, strengthening its frontiers and encouraging learning and architecture, and in Rome he reorganized the army and codified Roman law
References in periodicals archive ?
As an engaging conceit, Lane Fox periodically compares his views to what he imagines the emperor Hadrian would have thought about the same topics.
When emperor Hadrian devised a new dish, a 4-flavour kedgeree, he had to come up with a new word for it, "Tetrapharmacum".
This temple, located some twenty miles east of Rome, was dedicated to Antinous, the lover of Emperor Hadrian, and dates from 134 CE.
A program note reminds us that the original Athenaeum was built by the Roman emperor Hadrian in Athens and was a sanctuary of Athena, goddess of wisdom, fertility, the useful arts, and prudent warfare.
Yet the great temple/church (in which its reputed designer the Emperor Hadrian is supposed to have presided both as judge and god) gives some notion of what the other great public buildings of Rome and its provincial cities must have been like: the baths, the basilicas, the libraries, the markets.
Roman Emperor Hadrian revived the fashion of beards, apparently to hide battle scars on his face and a large wart on his chin.
The standout coin was an ancient brass Sestertius of the Roman emperor Hadrian that sold for $1.
org/en/list/430) World Heritage Site in 1987 and was built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in 122 AD and was 118 kilometers, approximately 73 miles, long.
Animula vagula blandula" (Pale Little Vagabond Soul), the title of this exhibition, which reads like a cantata of sonorous vowels, is the opening line of a poem by the Roman emperor Hadrian.
Among the topics are a Mellian fenestrated stand in the Nicholson Museum at the University of Sydney, Athenian decrees of 404/3 to 86 BC passed at the same meeting, limestone reliefs with raised hands from Messene, and a new portrait of the Emperor Hadrian.
London, August 1 (ANI): One of antiquity's most remarkable examples of engineering, The Pantheon - a giant temple in the heart of Rome - that was built by Emperor Hadrian 2000 years ago, may have acted as a colossal sundial, a new study has revealed.
The sole representative of the first-crop sires is the Aidan O'Brientrained Emperor Hadrian, a son of Holy Roman Emperor who cost EUR140,000 from the Goffs Orby sale, having made EUR80,000 as a foal.