Theodosius II

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Theodosius II,

401–50, Roman emperor of the East (408–50), son and successor of Arcadius. He preferred the study of theology and astronomy to public affairs, which he left to the guidance of his sister, PulcheriaPulcheria
, 399–453, Roman empress of the East (414–53), daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia. She became coruler with her brother, Theodosius II, and regent in 414. Theodosius remained under her influence most of his life.
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—and, at times, to that of his wife EudociaEudocia
, d. 460, Roman empress of the East; daughter of an Athenian Sophist. She was selected by Pulcheria as the wife of Theodosius II, whom she married (421) after being baptized and changing her name from Athenaïs to Eudocia.
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. The chief political events of his reign were the establishment (425) of Valentinian IIIValentinian III,
419–55, Roman emperor of the West (425–55). Two years after the death of his uncle, Honorius, he was placed on the throne by his cousin Theodosius II, who deposed the usurper John.
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 as emperor in the West, the raids into the empire by the Huns under AttilaAttila
, d. 453, king of the Huns (445–53). After 434 he was coruler with his brother, whom he murdered in 445. In 434, Attila obtained tribute and great concessions for the Huns in a treaty with the Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II, but, taking advantage of Roman wars
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, and the conferences held with Attila in regard to the ever-increasing tribute he demanded. In 431, Theodosius summoned the Council of Ephesus, which condemned NestorianismNestorianism,
Christian heresy that held Jesus to be two distinct persons, closely and inseparably united. In 428, Emperor Theodosius II named an abbot of Antioch, Nestorius (d. 451?), as patriarch of Constantinople.
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, and in 449 he convoked and upheld the Robber Synod, which declared the orthodoxy of Eutychianism (see EutychesEutyches
, c.378–c.452, archimandrite in Constantinople, sponsor of Eutychianism, the first phase of Monophysitism. He was the leader in Constantinople of the most violent opponents of Nestorianism, among whom was Dioscurus, successor to St. Cyril (d.
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). Among his other activities were the founding (425) of the higher school (or university) of Constantinople and the publication (438) of the Theodosian CodeTheodosian Code
, Latin Codex Theodosianus, Roman legal code, issued in 438 by Theodosius II, emperor of the East. It was at once adopted by Valentinian III, emperor of the West.
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. His brother-in-law, Marcian, succeeded him.

Theodosius II


Born circa 401; died July 28, 450. Emperor of Byzantium (the Eastern Roman Empire) from 408.

Until 428, Theodosius’ sister Pulcheria played an important role in the government. She was supplanted in importance by the emperor’s wife Eudocia, whose influence lasted until 441. Subsequently, the eunuch Chrysaphius enjoyed considerable power. Under Theodosius a system of impregnable walls was constructed around Constantinople (413), and an early Byzantine law code—the Codex Theodosianus—was promulgated (438). In 431 and 449 the emperor convoked ecumenical councils at Ephesus. Theodosius’ reign saw the loss of much territory in North Africa to the Vandals.

References in periodicals archive ?
Following excavations that took place between October 2009 and July 2010 on the site of the church, which was built in the time of East Roman Emperor Theodosius II, further excavations were conducted and completed on Sept.
This documentary charts his campaign of slaughter and pillage across Europe, when he posed a serious threat to the Roman Empire - emperor Theodosius II was forced to pay him tribute, and he also made relatively short work of the Balkans, Austria and Germany.
In addition, Pentcheva shifts the history of Byzantine Marian devotion away from Pulcheria, elder sister of the Emperor Theodosius II, whom historians frequently credit with inspiring the imperial cult of the Mother of God during the Christological controversies in the first half of the fifth century.
Under their united guidance, the Huns launched campaigns against Sassanid Persia, in which they were eventually repulsed, and into southeastern Europe against the Eastern Roman Empire, where they spread desolation across the Balkans and Thrace, penetrating Greece as far as Thermopylae before accepting tributary peace terms from the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II.
54) This was shortly followed by an edict of Emperor Theodosius II, issued in 410, that expelled all Jewish soldiers from the Eastern Roman military.
In the early fifth century the emperor Theodosius II is known to have brought a quadriga from the island of Chios and installed it on the starting gates of the hippodrome.
413, the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II oversaw the completion of two defensive walls at Constantinople and the construction of a main entrance called the Golden Gate.
One letter addressed to Emperor Theodosius II survives.