These results demonstrate that caribou bone collagen is a reliable and accurate dating material, but more importantly, they indicate that seeds from edible berries (Rubus chamaemorus and Empetrum
nigrum) also produce reliable dates that are statistically indistinguishable from those on caribou.
Previous studies of Empetrum
rubrum (Rossow, in Correa 1999) described their leaves as narrow and longitudinally ridged on their abaxial surface.
Los textos citan tambien el uso de antorchas confeccionadas con ramas de Empetrum
rubrum en actividades tales como la caza de aves.
At Little Lake macrofossils of shrub taxa are also common: Salix herbacea, Vaccinium uliginosum, Empetrum
, Arctostaphylos, Cassiope hypnoides, and Kalmia.
2] with creeping pine Pinus pumila and evergreen dwarf bushes such as black crowberry Empetrum
II III Azorella lycopodioides + I II Empetrum
rubrum I I II Gaultheria pumila I I II Acaena macrocephala I .
nigrum and the swamp blackberry overwinter with live green leaves.
Evergreen, ericaceous sclerophyllous shrubs and dwarf shrubs occur mostly in low-pH wetlands, and several species, such as Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Empetrum
nigrum also have a distribution along broad soil-moisture gradients from bogs and mesic tundra, to dry forests and arctic heaths (Larsen 1982, Moore 1981).
There were five cover types in our study area: 1) shrub dominated by creeping pine Pinus pumila, 2) dwarf shrub dominated by alpine azalea Loiseleuriaprocumbens, Arcterica nana and black crowberry Empetrum
Amongst the most significant species are Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Empetrum
hermaphroditum, Antennaria carpatica, Aquilegia alpina, Carex ferruginea, Carex foetida, Cerastium alpinum, Cryptogramma crispa, Dryopteris oreades, Oreopteris limbo sperma, Woodsia alpina, Eriophorum polystachyon, Eryophorum scheuchzeri, Gentiana purpurea, Homogyne alpina, Juncus jacquinii, Luzula alpinopilosa, Ranunculus kupferi, Sassurea discolor, Senecio incanus, Trichophorum alpinum, Trifolim alpinum, (etc.
Ultima Esperanza: Fiordo Peel, rio al E al del cerro Aguilera, 50[degrees] 30'S, 73[degrees] 44'W, en turbales esfagnosos con Empetrum
, 17-XII-1985, Pisano 6109 (HIP, RNG); Puerto Toro, Rio Serrano, 2 km from mouth, W side, 51[degrees] 24'S, 73[degrees] 05'W, 17-I-1977, Sphagnum bog, Moore & Pisano s.
Some Ericaceae (Ericales; also including Empetrum
and some epacrids) (Cronquist, 1981) and Sapotaceae (Steyn et al.