Contrary to natural sciences, where the starting point is the uncertainty of outcomes, ceteris paribus laws in economics begin with this prior knowledge, because there is no reference to direct empirical observation
, while conducting a thought experiment.
There are two systems of reasoning in (school) geometry: one is based on empirical observation
, and the other is based on deductive argumentation.
While I personally feel that the outcome--pluralist compromise and conditional inclusion as observed in the Canadian case--is morally superior to outright exclusion or oppression, I am neither able to deduct pluralism's moral worth from my empirical observations
, nor does the model of pluralism as a triangular relations guarantee that those who I consider the most deserving groups will be situated on the right sight of the equation.
Such choices make for aesthetic pleasure and moral clarity but hardly confirm a commitment to empirical observation
beyond some common sense observations such as "changes in family environment can .
The choice of focus is influenced either by the angle of empirical observation
or by one's theoretical starting point, which may involve taking an a priori ontological or epistemological position" (p.
Believing that empirical observation
of the poor would benefit her ethically, she nonetheless felt prey to an enervation that echoed the helplessness of her more incapacitated slum tenants.
He also brought to it a scholarly insistence on enquiry and respect for empirical observation
All credit is due to researchers like Maxwell, Planck, Bohr, and others for their efforts in modern science, but it must be recognized that without the concept of measurement, numbers, and empirical observation
, their work would not have been possible.
279) are in an odd position, given their insistence on the will of the leader ("vision") in creating the future, and on the empirical observation
that bureaucracies, at least, often exhibit considerably less intelligence than the individuals who make them up.
In response, Benedict argues that Christianity relies on truths deeper than empirical observation
, chief among them that life has purpose.
The strengths of this book include its grounding in the literature and empirical observation
, sensitivity to the needs and concerns of adult learners, and pragmatic discussions of techniques and methods that have appeared to be successful, unsuccessful, or simply not well-received.
While that should not force clinicians into emptying their clinical closet of the armoury of techniques and approaches that may have been learned through a lifetime of clinical work and empirical observation
, it is necessary that a decision making framework is in place when planning change to a patients treatment or intervention.