Contrary to natural sciences, where the starting point is the uncertainty of outcomes, ceteris paribus laws in economics begin with this prior knowledge, because there is no reference to direct empirical observation
, while conducting a thought experiment.
There are two systems of reasoning in (school) geometry: one is based on empirical observation
, and the other is based on deductive argumentation.
While I personally feel that the outcome--pluralist compromise and conditional inclusion as observed in the Canadian case--is morally superior to outright exclusion or oppression, I am neither able to deduct pluralism's moral worth from my empirical observations
, nor does the model of pluralism as a triangular relations guarantee that those who I consider the most deserving groups will be situated on the right sight of the equation.
When sensational new discoveries are counter to empirical observation
, caution is mandatory.
Such choices make for aesthetic pleasure and moral clarity but hardly confirm a commitment to empirical observation
beyond some common sense observations such as "changes in family environment can ...
The purpose of this paper is to examine if this empirical observation
can be confirmed by the socioeconomic data of the entire nation at the local government level.
The ability of photography and film to document empirical observation
forms the topic of the first four essays, which collect and discuss visual evidence ranging from concentration camp footage (Ulrike Weckel) through visual representations of Argentinean Virtue prize-winners (Maria Fernanda Lorenzo, Ana Lia Rey, and Cecilia Toussounian) to photographic work by Ellen Hellmann (Marijke du Toit) and Eadweard Maybridge (Elspeth Brown).
Through analysis of Oviedo's diverse verbal and visual representations of the pineapple, for example, Myers argues that Oviedo came to rely less on European conceptual models and more on empirical observation
in an attempt to convey its appearance.
He proclaims himself to be a 'pragmatist' who believes in 'empirical observation
', not ideology.
The author is not familiar with common philosophical terminology: scientific deduction is said to be based on empirical observation
"The choice of focus is influenced either by the angle of empirical observation
or by one's theoretical starting point, which may involve taking an a priori ontological or epistemological position" (p.