Contrary to natural sciences, where the starting point is the uncertainty of outcomes, ceteris paribus laws in economics begin with this prior knowledge, because there is no reference to direct empirical observation
, while conducting a thought experiment.
At its worst, it seems to be something like fideism (reality is not disputed, but we cannot truly know it or know it fully by empirical observation
10] Bitter disagreements and debates ensued about the proper relationship between tradition, experience, empirical observation
and the clinical sciences in regard to bloodletting.
As a sociological concept, born from empirical observation
and not from normative reasoning, the model shifts our perspective to those processes that are deemed to be significant by the researcher.
bar]'s approach to the status of scientific discourse is further clarified in the case of eclipses--regarding which the Prophet had ordained prayer until they end--when he reconciles possible tensions between Prophetic Tradition and empirical observation
by stressing that religious ritual and astronomical predication relate to separate spheres and discourses (p.
When sensational new discoveries are counter to empirical observation
, caution is mandatory.
Graham says Austen's "overarching values--keeping faith with plausibility as empirical observation
understands it, deriving details from real life, relying on fresh language rather than cant phrases--are not announced but [can] be inferred inductively" (17).
The ability of photography and film to document empirical observation
forms the topic of the first four essays, which collect and discuss visual evidence ranging from concentration camp footage (Ulrike Weckel) through visual representations of Argentinean Virtue prize-winners (Maria Fernanda Lorenzo, Ana Lia Rey, and Cecilia Toussounian) to photographic work by Ellen Hellmann (Marijke du Toit) and Eadweard Maybridge (Elspeth Brown).
Through analysis of Oviedo's diverse verbal and visual representations of the pineapple, for example, Myers argues that Oviedo came to rely less on European conceptual models and more on empirical observation
in an attempt to convey its appearance.
The author is not familiar with common philosophical terminology: scientific deduction is said to be based on empirical observation
The choice of focus is influenced either by the angle of empirical observation
or by one's theoretical starting point, which may involve taking an a priori ontological or epistemological position" (p.
He also brought to it a scholarly insistence on enquiry and respect for empirical observation