Plein Air

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Related to En plein air: synthetism, Japonisme
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Plein Air


a term used in painting to denote the portrayal of the broad range of light changes caused by sunlight and air. Plein-air painting developed as a result of the work of artists who painted outdoors directly from nature in order to render more accurately the appearance of the natural world.

The earliest paintings executed en plein air are the works of several 17th-century Italian Renaissance artists. However, the principles of plein-air painting actually became popular in the first half of the 19th century. The technique was adopted by J. Constable in England and A. A. Ivanov in Russia. In the mid-19th century, it was adopted by the Barbizon school (T. Rousseau, J. Dupré, N. V. Diaz de la Peña, C.-F. Daubigny) and C. Corot. Plein-air painting was much valued in the second half of the 19th century by the impressionists, including C. Monet, C. Pissarro, and A. Renoir. In Russia, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, noteworthy plein-air paintings were executed by V. D. Polenov, I. I. Levitan, V. A. Serov, K. A. Koro-vin, and I. E. Grabar’. Interest in the technique has continued in 20th-century art.


Liaskovskaia, O. A. Plener ν russkoi zhivopisi XIX veka. Moscow, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Jacolby Satterwhite, En Plein Air: Music of Objective Romance, 2016-, HD video, color, sound, 10 minutes.
Because she works on relatively flimsy jusi, it is difficult for Gonzalez to paint en plein air. She prefers to work from photographs, painting while sitting on the floor so that the paint will not drip and ruin the painting.
"During the last couple of years I have discovered the joys of painting 'en plein air' and I am embracing the challenges of this discipline - especially with the Welsh weather." Ward - whose influences include Tom Thomson from the Canadian Group of Seven, Chuck Close and Lucian Freud - had a solo show at Gallery 8 in St James's, London, last March on behalf of World Child Cancer and has exhibited at Fountain Fine Art in Llandeilo and Cardiff and the Washington Gallery in Penarth.
Alors que certains sont accueillis par des proches, la plupart vivent en plein air. Beaucoup de familles se sont installees sous les arbres qui leur offrent un peu d'ombre dans la journee.
D'autres infrastructures specifiques installees en plein air constituent des espaces de formation repondant aux exigences pedagogiques, a l'instar des entreprises equines et clubs equestres structures nationaux et etrangers: Il s'agit d'une carriere de 4 000 mA utilisee pour la formation en dressage des chevaux, mais aussi pour l'echauffement des chevaux en preparation pour les spectacles.
La peau halee par des annees de travail en plein air, Jorge Duarte integre la vingtaine d'ouvriers de "la brigade de paveurs" de la mairie de Lisbonne, souvent appeles les "orfevres du sol lisboete", charges de l'entretien de plusieurs kilometres de trottoirs ou de chaussees.
A landscape artist, Keith says he enjoys 'en plein air' work - mostly captured in the fresh air of the Pennines.
A seamless journey, interrupted only by the opportunity to enjoy a second breakfast of omelette au fromage faite aux oeufs de poules elevees en plein air, bacon grille du Yorkshire...
D'autres manifestations en plein air suivront ; comme des cours francophones et des animations sur le Chemin de la Francophonie a Ohrid et dans le Parc de la Francophonie a Skopje.
Delanty paints en plein air and at his studio to create original works for reproduction at Gango Editions.
"Colorplate 68": Eugene worsens./ At fifty I am old./ I paint en plein air no more.// April: he gives me a bunch of violets./ I crush them/ onto my pallette,/ suture my canvas/ with violets.