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the production of a nontransparent enamel-like film on aluminum and aluminum alloys as a result of anodizing in chromatoborate solutions or solutions containing salts of titanium, zirconium, thorium, or other elements. The milky colored films are usually 10–20 μm thick. Organic dyes are used to impart color. Enameled items have a more attractive appearance and improved resistance against the action of thermal shock, corrosive media, organic solvents, and food products. Enameling is used in the manufacture of lighting equipment, medical instruments, commercial items, sanitary-engineering equipment, and various instruments.