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Related to Enclitic: proclitic


Enclitics are reduced or contracted forms of words. They are attached to the word that precedes them by an apostrophe, and they are dependent on that word for their meaning.
Enclitics generally consist of just one consonant sound and cannot stand on their own. In English, they are usually the unstressed forms of functional words such as auxiliary verbs, determiners, participles, and pronouns. As such, they have grammatical rather than lexical meaning (compared with suffixes, which create new words through inflection).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an unstressed word that in speech becomes attached to the previous stressed word. The two words together form an accentual unit, or phonetic word. The most common enclitics in Russian are particles, such as by, zhe, -ka, li, and -to, as in gdé-by and ddi-ka. Pronouns, nouns, and verbs, depending on the context, can also function as enclitics, as in the sentence Gdé byl étot chelovék? (“Where was that man?”)

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the above example, the CPA translation of the Greek verb has an independent pronoun in one manuscript (CCR1), but an enclitic in another ([CSRPd]).
The ratios of enclitics are within the same range, except for The Insatiate Countess act V: much lower.
These data show that a speaker can map two different prosodic structures (stress retained on the imperative verb even when enclitic pronouns are added (a), and stress on the final clitic pronoun (b)) onto the same non-Italian syntactic structure (imperative verb + accusative clitic + dative clitic).
Enclitic possessives in Lecce and surrounding towns.
ahyldendlic 'enclitic', ansproece 'speaking as one', asciendlic 'interrogative' Law and order (116)
The carpenters were technicians who devoted themselves to the minutiae of scholarship, such as Robert Brownings hero in "A Grammarians Funeral," who formulated the syntactical "doctrine of the enclitic De," i.e., the rule for distinguishing the Greek "de" (delta epsilon) meaning "toward" from the Greek "de" meaning "but." The architects, on the other hand, were the grand designers of magnificent scholarly edifices such as Wolfson's projected multi-volume Judaeo-centric History of Philosophy.
Derrida, Jacques (1978), "The Retrait of Metaphor," Enclitic 2(2): 5-33.
Non-exhaustively, we could demonstrate this with practically every word: grammatical case and gender appear still to be present, as in the expression of the typically Norse enclitic definite particle, as with yurn 'the earth' (Modern Norwegian jorden) or olt illt 'every evil', where <t> marks an unexpressed neuter noun.
(46) See Michael Halley, "PAS A SA PLACE" (1980) 4:1 Enclitic at 97 (citing and discussing Martin Heidegger, "Letter on Humanism") ["PAS"].
Eventually, this pattern was extended to the more marginal enclitic sequence.
Final post-tonic syllables (sometimes considered semiforte), especially the last enclitic attached to verbs.