Enclitic

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enclitic

Enclitics are reduced or contracted forms of words. They are attached to the word that precedes them by an apostrophe, and they are dependent on that word for their meaning.
Enclitics generally consist of just one consonant sound and cannot stand on their own. In English, they are usually the unstressed forms of functional words such as auxiliary verbs, determiners, participles, and pronouns. As such, they have grammatical rather than lexical meaning (compared with suffixes, which create new words through inflection).
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Enclitic

 

an unstressed word that in speech becomes attached to the previous stressed word. The two words together form an accentual unit, or phonetic word. The most common enclitics in Russian are particles, such as by, zhe, -ka, li, and -to, as in gdé-by and ddi-ka. Pronouns, nouns, and verbs, depending on the context, can also function as enclitics, as in the sentence Gdé byl étot chelovék? (“Where was that man?”)

References in periodicals archive ?
55) Enclitics never count towards the bisyllabic minimality requirement (cf.
Enclitic possessives in Lecce and surrounding towns.
The interrogative enclitic =be is part of a larger form class of locational enclitics: (7)
For example, the distinction was recognized by Hoffman (1827: 177, 344-47) and Phillips (1866: 91-93, 168-70), though they did not recognize how seldom if ever the third person pronominal enclitics occur in the present tense, as well as by Arayathinal (1957-1959: 1:143-50, 2:45), though his use of the label "present participle" for the active participle could be confusing.
Properly based Oun-- Gave us the doctrine of the enclitic De, Dead from the waist down.
Nominals, whether free pronoun or common noun, are case-marked with the causal/source enclitic.
It should be noted here that the precise function of the enclitics -n and -y is not entirely certain.
As seen in these examples, the enclitic may move forward in the sentence, but never farther than the word immediately preceding the verb.
I argue that the non-occurrence of the enclitics with mal is due to the information structure that the anaphoric mal-construction encodes.
As far as we know, no other enclitics have restrictions on the following context as well as the preceding context; in fact, this would be a very strange kind of "enclitic".
Also strange is is-ta-ga-as-ZA-an in i 43', apparently for istaggan-san, and the placement of the sentence enclitics on the fourth word of the sentence in ii 13.