Human labor is being pushed out of the workplace, much as farmers were pushed off the land by the Enclosure Movement
at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution.
See also James Boyle, "The Second Enclosure Movement
and the Construction of the Public Domain" (2003) 66:2 Law & Contemp Probs 33 at 51 [Boyle, "Second Enclosure Movement
This article begins by contextualizing IPRs through a brief exploration of the second enclosure movement
. The emergent discourse of cultural environmentalism is then employed so as to draw upon the analytical framework of public choice theory, which in turn is explored so as to contextualize social production and the networked public sphere.
For instance, on page 217 we read that the late-medieval enclosure movement
in England meant that 'the peasants, divided and impoverished, flocked to the cities as cheap manpower, which helped to create the nascent industrial enterprises of the British Isles.
And Linebaugh makes clear that despite the enclosure movement
the principles of commoning and the right to subsistence were never eradicated but have continually been rearticulated throughout the long Anglo-American experience, including Kett's Rebellion in 1549 which took aim against enclosure and led to thousands of rebels living in campsites throughout England, the "forty acres and a mule" policy briefly instituted by General William Sherman in the aftermath of the Civil War, and generations of Native Americans who have defended communal land ownership.
The author sees the enclosure movement
as the primary reason for this shift in the role of gardens, as the conceiving of previously communal land as private family property meant that large sections of England's land were for private use and private profit.
According to the author, an oppositional discourse has emerged within the fields of law and public policy, concerning the privatization, or "enclosure," of ideas--analogous to the land enclosure movement
in 16th century England--and the expansion of intellectual property rights, resulting in the "fencing off" of the intellectual commons.
Dan Leighton Reclaiming the new commons A new politics of the commons David Bollier The second enclosure movement
James Boyle The peer-to-peer revolution Michel Bauwens Social democracy and anti-capitalist theory Jeremy Gilbert The commons, the state and transformative politics Hilary Wainwright Interview A multitude of possibilities Michael Hardt interviewed by Dan Leighton Squeezing middle England Death and taxes Martin O'Neil The Anxious Affluent John Harris Notebook An appreciation of Richard Rorty James Crabtree Reviews Naomi Klein reviewed by David Floyd Benjamin Barber reviewed by Michael Calderbank Doreen Massey reviewed by Max Nathan
Marzec's book An Ecological and Postcolonial Study of Literature: From Daniel Defoe to Salman Rushdie is an important contribution to postcolonial studies precisely because he attends to both these neglected realities of the Western imperial project by way of an analysis of the enormously consequential history of the enclosure movement
Like all counter-historical thought experiments, this is at best a half-hearted one, especially as Marchand gives at least nodding recognition to the powerful impersonal forces at play within Britain--the enclosure movement
and the relentless outbreaks of religious discord being the most important--that drove its settlement and expansion in the New World.
The last phase was the Enclosure Movement
, when the large Victorian estates were created, often to the benefit of a few wealthy landowners.
, the process of fencing off common land and turning